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Why is the Weak Force weak?

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The subatomic world is governed by three known forces, each with vastly different energy.  In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln takes on the weak nuclear force and shows why it is so much weaker than the other known forces. Related videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hk1cOffTgdk
Категория: Наука и техника
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Текстовые комментарии (569)
zacharycat (2 дня назад)
How can a particle have zero mass and still exist?
The Ultimate Reductionist (4 дня назад)
Why is the total electric charge of the universe 0? Why are there exactly as many protons (or whatever other particles are positively charged) as there are electrons?
-Double Negative- (5 дней назад)
I kind of like how you say "mass of" and then give an energy. you just expect me to divide by c^2 on my own.
nobody (6 дней назад)
Thumbnail = You know I had to do it to em'
Kj16V (6 дней назад)
The weak force is weak because it don't even lift bro.
Joshua Hatfield (9 дней назад)
I just don't get how everyone doesn't understand this stuff.
Daniele Messina (9 дней назад)
equation equals a bunch of products? equation equals? that's not how you write equations?!?
cipiripper (9 дней назад)
Because bleeping weak has only 7 days.
Siva Prasad (13 дней назад)
Why is the Weak Forces are Weak , Because it is so strong in the Other Dimension where " This " Creation is Happened and " The Human Consciousness is limited up to the wishes of "The Creator ". When you understand this, you will be allowed.
Peter Broadey (13 дней назад)
Well that’s cleared that mystery up. 🤪
Vistico93 (13 дней назад)
So wait, do the other non-photon bosons have actual mass meaning they don't travel at the speed of light or is their energy from the long form of Einstein's equation that includes momentum and the gluon, W, and Z bosons do travel at the speed of light?
Eric Taylor (13 дней назад)
Is gravity weak for the same reason?
Eric Taylor (13 дней назад)
I'd like to know why we discovered in the atomic forces in reverse order of their strength. Gravity was discovered first, then electromagnetic, then the strong and weak force. Is it possible there is another force as yet undiscovered? Perhaps something responsible for dark energy?
Hooknosed Jack (13 дней назад)
How do you compare the forces to determine one force is 1% as strong as another?
Jamie Anan-ua (14 дней назад)
Then is carbon dating really effective after a certain point in history?
EebstertheGreat (15 дней назад)
In principle, if some apparatus could generate as many top quarks as we like, could we eventually observe the decay of a hadron that includes a top quark? Surely some fraction of top quarks form hadrons before they decay, even if only a very small one.
Junior (16 дней назад)
Awesome! But quantum mechanics sounds so much like a bugged programmed code that the programmer did at midnight sunday to deliver on monday. "Oh fuck.. just... put this random things here... And if they try to measure the position the speed is... oh shit, this code will be a mess... you can't measure both! And the energy of a boson is, I don't know, put a random here... zero... infinity..."
PointyTailofSatan (16 дней назад)
I used a Feynman for baking. Incoming is pastry and filling, and outgoing you get a meson. A pie meson.
TYUNBV 762QPL (16 дней назад)
Faut que j'arrête de tendre le baton en fait.
Robert Shackleferd (16 дней назад)
Too stoned for this
Beefcakes155 (17 дней назад)
PBS from the 90s called. They want their intro back
Bear Ram (17 дней назад)
That's a fantastic opening line 'there are lots of questions one could ask about particle physics from "why there exist quarks" to "why would anyone care about particle physics at all"!
Jose Saldivar (22 дня назад)
Dr. Lincoln. ,What is the particle involved in magnetic force. Not electromagnetic but magnetic only. is it the photon too ?
Stephen M (23 дня назад)
So the weak force is more the rare force?
glitch gamer (24 дня назад)
Why are u dancing though
onehit pick (24 дня назад)
I often wonder why we are tinkering around in these extremely rare particles and their rules when they are only 4 to 5% of stuff.
William Dye (26 дней назад)
Added to my "Favorites" list. It makes me wonder if a similar effect explains the weakness of gravity.
debyton (27 дней назад)
The way this works is all of the forces (including gravity) are residual effects caused by the information flow or teleportation either out or into this space-time via dilated dimensions called Planck-Holes (PH). These PH act as pours in the fabric of space-time. Local PH are dilated (changes in teleportation bandwidth) differently by various types of matter i.e. baryonic, dark etc.. Dilated PH which permeate the fabric of space-time are analogous to open pours in a membrane or drains in a swimming pool while information is analogus to water. This information flow into the PH is gravitation. Mass is the accumulation of information that can occur around particular dilations of a PH regime. Masslessness is the absence of such accumulation of information due to a greater PH dilation. Spin is the circulation, or the lack thereof, of accumulated information around the PH as matter drains or teleports unperturbed out of this space-time, ergo; gravitates. This circulating accumulation of information is what produce charge and electromagnetism within baryonic matter. The strong force occurs when these circulating information channels occur around the PH, and while in sufficient proximity, heterodyne or combine in a special type of entanglement to form the nuclear binding force which permits atoms to form. When PH have a sufficiently large dilation by sufficiently large accumulations of matter, a Planck hole becomes a Black hole, a virtual Niagra falls of information teleportation out of this universe. The weak force is the effect that occurs on the scale of diminutively dilated PH in unstable (radioactive) amalgams of matter that is equivalent to the jets of energy emitted by overfeeding black holes on the cosmic scale. Dark matter is a particle which, under the influence of the Higgs field, dilates local PH to a greater extent than does normal baryonic matter, therefore, information flow, ergo gravitation, occurs via PH dilated by dark matter with none of the side effects seen in baryonic matter. Hence, no information accumulation or circulation means no mass, no spin, no strong force, and no weak force, therefore dark matter, unlike normal matter, is rendered very weakly interacting yet gravitates. For more of the description of this universe and also how life and individuality fit into all of this (which it clearly must) read: https://instantiationoflife.wordpress.com/
Tomi (1 месяц назад)
I just hope the citizen scientists brigade will realise that physics isn't a subject that's intuitive. Basics can be ,so before posting a facile analogy attempting to disprove quantum theory just remember what it takes to get a PhD - it takes a lot of time and effort.
Impatient Ape (1 месяц назад)
You're overdoing it with the hands. Very distracting because of overuse. Reduce in future videos.
Ninna Asher (1 месяц назад)
scary place
Pedro Hurtado (1 месяц назад)
I wsih he would make a video on why there are 2 bosons for the weak force.
word process brian (1 месяц назад)
Thank you sir, I have a request for clarity. Mass (less), or (no) mass, or (not) mass, or (anti) mass? Charge, and spin as well. The descrictors of concepts are used literally in some cases, and generally in others. The definitions are specific for one descriptor and may at best be abstract when applied to another. Even if they are not real words it is best to describe things with the same definition.
Frank Harr (1 месяц назад)
O.K., let me make sure I have this straight. A top quark, for reasons unknown but likely because it wants to be at a lower energy state, emits a w particle and becomes a bottom quark. This W can have an energy over a certain threshold and if it does, it survives long enough to be re-absorbed by a bottom quark and creates a new top quark an there is no beta decay. Rarely, the W will have a very low energy and if that happens, it can decay farther into an electron and a neutrino which exit the neucleus of the effected atom and cause radioactive decay. That would explain why carbon 14 is more radioactive than carbon 12, not enough bottom quarks. Does this mean that the universe is slowly running out of neutrons that aren't in black holes or neutron stars? I mean VERY slowly. So slowly, it won't have a chance to happen before everything else happens.
aleksander suur (1 месяц назад)
That's why different radioisotopes have different day rates isn't it? Or for that matter, why they don't all instantly decay in the first place.
Zenytram Searom (1 месяц назад)
So a W- + boson can exist if they trade there mass with time of existence So can other particle do that too?? Something like, a eletron emitting a top quark that is really light for a brief moment and decays to a photons
Scott Anderson (1 месяц назад)
Maybe it should bulk up. Like, work out with a gorilla as a trainer
JesusFriedChrist (1 месяц назад)
Because your moves are weak, babe.
Mekratrig (1 месяц назад)
Neutrons decay into protongs? Four questions, what is the rate of that decay? Is this an inevitable process, for instants, do decaying neutrons in a neutrons star eventually transform it into a 'proton' star? And what do protons decay into - if they even do? If they don't, what causes a neutrong (which would seem to be a more 'stable' particle) to decay, while the charged proton does not?
cruz0e (1 месяц назад)
I though the mass unit was gram/kilogram... electron volt is new to me:)
Peter Alton Mertz (1 месяц назад)
There is quite an interesting connection between quantum tunneling and the Weak Force. My hypothesis on that is that Electromagnetism drives two differently charged particles in different directions that is similar to a maritime concept called tacking. That is when the exact same boat is pushed in different directions based on its orientation to waves being produced. The fields around particles create a surface that is more likely to absorb energy from the fields in one direction or another and push different charges (tacks) in different directions. Occasionally matter’s phase or orientation will shift out of this orientation into a neutral non-reacting phase. Openly wondering if this isn’t exactly what is happening here? Whatever causes the mass shifts it orientation just long enough to cause a decay. To put it in a nutshell, how much energy is expressed as mass is the critical component of the Weak Force?
BakonKing (1 месяц назад)
Wonderful explanation. As I understand it from this, the reason that extreme temperatures are required to unify the forces e.g. create the electroweak, is that only at these energies are all the messenger particles likely to be manifested with similar probabilities.
Meadow Brook (1 месяц назад)
Liked and Subscribed!
Marcin Lysakowski (1 месяц назад)
Dr. Lincoln, you sir, are awesome!
My stuff (1 месяц назад)
And just how do we use this information? UFO’s? Faster than light travel? Fusion energy?
andyt1313 (1 месяц назад)
From what I understand, gravity is 10^38 times weaker than the electromagnetic force.
Idylchatter (1 месяц назад)
Could it be low "T".
Dr. Wier (1 месяц назад)
what?! I ' m ü n d ë r s t ä n d ï n g l ë s s ä n d l ë s s ö f QM.
Kiss my libTARD (2 месяца назад)
if we lived in a universe with different forces would we be asking why we are not like the way we are now ?
Pincho Paxton (2 месяца назад)
Annoying video, because all of the physics are wrong.
Shyhalu (2 месяца назад)
5:55 Its not mind blowing when you visualize Higgs Bosons interacting with it.
Jo Moiras (2 месяца назад)
Dr Lincoln, how can the top-bottom quark interaction happen so fast there is no interaction with the electromagnetic force?
Nodge X (2 месяца назад)
So the weak force is actually very strong, and gravity is much, much weaker than the weak force. Okaay.
Nafiur Pial (2 месяца назад)
Too awesome!! (both you & particle physics)
Yora (2 месяца назад)
Wow, I think I actually understood this. And I think I also now understand a lot more about uncertainty. Still don't understand why the weak force is a force, though. Nothing seems to be attracted or repelled.
Albert Torres (3 месяца назад)
What's clear is the weak force can become the strongest force. Like how strong is weak force in a black hole? When it can rip matter apart and cause light to exceed light speed. The actual force for magnetism and gravity is inertial.
Tom Jerry (3 месяца назад)
There are still no theory that could combine these forces together.
mamba701 (3 месяца назад)
also, would it be possible for stars to form just out of quarks and other subatomic particles (like a neutron star)?
mamba701 (3 месяца назад)
pardon my ignorance, but what effects does a photon have on anything if it doesnt carry a charge? how does light affect the electromagnetic force? im not a scientist, just an enthusiast so again, pardon my ignorance and thank you for the video
Frank Harr (3 месяца назад)
Interesting. I had no idea it worked like that.
Özgür KIRDI (3 месяца назад)
Is the half-life of an isotope derived from that probability of producing a W boson with the right energy? If less likely, longer half-life and more likely shorter?
tetrahedron mind over matter (3 месяца назад)
What does doing very sophisticated very petroleumize smelly feet gmo to each other look like?
Sarcast (3 месяца назад)
I keep watching these videos on topics I understand, and the more I watch, the more I understand nothing anymore :/
Alin Ababei (3 месяца назад)
Confusing and poorly explained
Jacob Klein (3 месяца назад)
I asked the same question of the new Star Wars movies...
anamika dhawan (3 месяца назад)
I had a doubt from Einsteins equation m=mo/sqrt of 1-v*v/c*c if something travels at the speed of light it mass becomes infinite but photons is massless
MrBonners (3 месяца назад)
A Neutron decays to a positive and negative particle. Why/What triggers the neutral Neutron to split?
Jacob Zondag (4 месяца назад)
10:08 I don't mind my mind being blown, but the beard? That's a bridge too far to me.
Helene L (4 месяца назад)
I wonder what the range of GeV is when the minds of all of the non-physicists (like me) watching this video are blown.
Richard Rogow (5 месяцев назад)
Please note that the mass of the e- is about >500Kev then how can the required mass of the W boson be 156,000 ev (156 Kev) in the decay W ==> e- + anti-neutrino ?. (as seen in 7:34/10:32 of the video)
Arunoday Dey (6 месяцев назад)
Openyoureyesandseethefuture countdown (6 месяцев назад)
Excellent excellent excellent !!!!
Edu SANTANA PRODUÇÕES (6 месяцев назад)
Why is the weak force weak??? because if it was strong we called it "Strong Force" lol
Michael (7 месяцев назад)
Well that was highly educational. Thank you.
James Applegate (7 месяцев назад)
Why is it we can send a signal million's of miles always with a slight pause?  And we are still using AMPS. to get cable across town?  Why do we need so many cell towers if there are so many satellites in space?
ragtop63 (7 месяцев назад)
Why multiply? Why not add? How do you know which operation to use?
Reid Cruickshank (7 месяцев назад)
Subscribed, then unsubscribed seconds later, after seeing such 'Offerings' on social justice/science overlap, etc. Maybe other channels can focus on *SCIENCE!*.
Trenzinho da Alegria (7 месяцев назад)
My mind was already blown when I learned last week that even protons decay, now even quarks also decay wtf?
Archontasius (8 месяцев назад)
5:33 is that how photoelectric effects happened?
Ronie Trump (8 месяцев назад)
My brain is going to explode
Rm Tripathi (8 месяцев назад)
Very well presented in what is difficult to comprehend in one go would like to go through again again to consolidate understanding
Keith Trevor (8 месяцев назад)
You are amazing! do not ever stop.
Alexander Krizel (8 месяцев назад)
I know it's probably been asked a million times, so I apologize for the redundancy, but if a photon has energy, how can it be massless?
The Guy (8 месяцев назад)
Because it can (actually must) have kinetic energy. But dont make the mistake and use the formula T=1/2 m v^2 from Newtonian mechanics to calculate the kinetic energy, as this of course would yield zero for the massles case m = 0. You have to use the relativistic equation which also works for m=0.
John Kochen (8 месяцев назад)
Why incoming1 TIMES incoming2 TIMES etc? Are you multiplying masses? Ev? Why not addition? At this point and in this form the equation makes no sense to me.
The Guy (8 месяцев назад)
Each part of the diagramm essentially represents the propability for the depicted process to happen. So the lines represent the propability for free propagation of the particle, a vertex stands for the propability for the interaction and so on. The propability for the whole diagram is then the product of the individual propabilities. If you want to convince yourself that this is true take a coin and flip it once. The propability for heads is 1/2. Flip it twice, and the propability for two times heads is 1/2*1/2 = 1/4.
Jim Redgewell (9 месяцев назад)
good video
gaetano di giorgio (9 месяцев назад)
Because God make a correct architecture of the reality
t. rex (9 месяцев назад)
May i ask at 9:16 where did the rest of the top quark mass go? is it invested in the hadronization ?
The Guy (8 месяцев назад)
It is converted into kinetic energy of the decay products (the bottom quark and W boson).
SuperJohnnyuk (9 месяцев назад)
Dear Don, thanks for another insightful video. As a humble clinician, I truly enjoy watching your videos during the graveyard shifts
Russ G (9 месяцев назад)
Umm,.because the Weak Force didn't eat its Wheaties?
dbright (9 месяцев назад)
R.i.p z boson. Cause of death .. being studied.
Tarok nath (9 месяцев назад)
Wouldn't it will be more appropriate to call them rare forces, instead of weak forces?
Sudip Mandal (9 месяцев назад)
Juan Pablo Mina (9 месяцев назад)
Right, so if I understood correctly, the weak force is called _weak_ because it's not as strong as the strong or the electromagnetic force at proton range. And that's because it's very rare that the decay happens. So, if it happened more frequently, it would be stronger?
Juan Pablo Mina (9 месяцев назад)
Just to be clear, the weak force is called that because it's weaker than all other forces at proton range, right?
Jonathan Dick (10 месяцев назад)
I would LOVE to see a video on the electroweak force. I've tried to watch some lectures on it, but it's a bit over my head, and your channel does a great job of explaining complex topics.
Steven Schiff (10 месяцев назад)
I wish you'd stop flailing your hands around when you talk. It's very distracting.
Hariprasad JB (11 месяцев назад)
yes,,, can u make an another video of this same thing with someother anology,, please,, just a 2min simple video, if u can,, becos i am not clear with this concept, Mr.Don
ismail barodiawala (11 месяцев назад)
great very usefull
Karan Rawat (11 месяцев назад)
you are best explainer Dr. Lincoln Please make more video
n.steam (1 год назад)
So, I understand the concept of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, for momentum and position. I can't quite grasp it for time and energy. Delta-t being a span of time, but what would be the start-end points?

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