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Cytotoxic T cells | Immune system physiology | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Оценок: 1710 | Просмотров: 532260
How cytotoxic T cells get activated by MHC-I/antigen complexes and then proceed to kill infected cells. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-immune-system/rn-the-immune-system/v/review-of-b-cells-cd4-t-cells-and-cd8-t-cells?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-immune-system/rn-the-immune-system/v/helper-t-cells?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s NCLEX-RN channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDx5cTeADCvKWgF9x_Qjz3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
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Текстовые комментарии (156)
ACE_stealth251 [ACE] (6 месяцев назад)
9:10 lmao I want to do that when I fail immunity exam
Johnny Berryy (7 месяцев назад)
yousif Radhy (10 месяцев назад)
عاشت ايدكم
David Izquierdo Gomez (10 месяцев назад)
no cytokines to activate CD8 T cells? just the MHC I ?
Richard Castle (10 месяцев назад)
CD8 T cells have to be activated in the secondary lymph before migrating to the site of the infected cell. Correct? How are they activated-how would they know to move?? plz answer quickly, Ive watched so many of these videos and everyone skips this step. Do: *macrophages or other APC pick up antigens from the damaged/viral/cancerous host cell and present them to CD8 cytotoxic tcells? *or, are the antigens from damaged/viral/cancerous host cell and present them to CD4 teclls- which turn into CD4 helper - which activate CD8 cytotoxic tcells?
jyeo3900 (7 месяцев назад)
There is a nice review written by Jeffrey C. Nolz (2015) Molecular mechanisms of CD8+ T cell trafficking and localization. 72(13):2461-2473. This review tells you everything you need to know about T-cells movement.
The LouseGrouse (11 месяцев назад)
That dendritic cell looks like it's gotta go fast.
Howard Xing (1 год назад)
4:54 "nuts" and sacrifice lol
LadyD0113 (1 год назад)
I just learned everything I need to know in an hour....than in 5 lectures...Thank you! Now to answer the professors ridiculous reaching questions!
Joshua Dougall (1 год назад)
Studying makes me feel like I have too many granzymes
Vladimir Šavija (1 год назад)
This is baaad, mkay. I'm gonna take you in, mkay. And then I'm gonna cut you in small pieces and present that pieces on my surface, mkay...
ItsPaulBoiii (1 год назад)
WOW. Great explanation. Now to time to youtube other things completely not about my final tomorrow.
awsome sarah (1 год назад)
Benjamin John, Kumar Russell (1 год назад)
shuffling of genes intentionally = polymorphism ?
Dmytro Koval (1 год назад)
This is very over simplistic. Once you are in the med school you will be learning about cross presentation. CTL are your actual effector cells. Tc cells are the precursor cells and must be activated by Th cells in order to differentiate into CTL. The CTL will then recognize and kill either virally infected or cancerous cells.
ak mi (1 год назад)
good video.
Harriet McGlue (1 год назад)
This guy explains stuff SO well
Grace Chu (2 года назад)
"So the big picture is, if you want to just take 20000 feet." HAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA gotta love this guy! He always makes me day studying MCAT less shitty
alo2acs (2 года назад)
So what's the difference between the memory T-cell, cytotoxic T-cell, and effector T-cell? And which comes first and divides into the others?
Mikhelle (2 года назад)
alotan2acs Those 3 cells are technically the same but they differ in function. The cytotoxic T cell is like the umbrella term(?) and it divides and a part of the population generated becomes the Memory T cells (which helps just in case the same antigen/infected cell reappears so that the dendritic cells wont have to process the pathogen and present the antigen again) and the other part becomes the effector T cells which kill the infected cells. :)
ExThe Goodness (2 года назад)
I believe that there are 2 types of t cell. Helper T cells and Cytotoxic T cells. The helper T cells recognize the MHC 2 protein, and therefore are activated and will divide into effector and memory T cells. The Cytotoxic T cells recognize the MHC 1 protein, usually on infected "suicidal " cells. And the Cytotoxic T cell will recognize this and kill the infected cell. I might be wrong, but that's how i see it
Abdul and school (2 года назад)
Shot, this is on the MCAT, I have to study good, I might need it later.
Mcat Pdf (2 года назад)
this is extremely helpful for MCAT
Ibrahim Aldhoon (3 года назад)
Well, I really should thank you for the spectacular explanation up there, but I'm really confused about the MHC l and MHC ll when it combined with the CD4 or CD8, I guess there are a specific roles which controls their binding together right ? thanks again man, u r awesome !
Mikhelle (2 года назад)
they are accessory molecules. i believe they're not exactly the ones who bind to the MHC + Ag complex, like what Reece said but I might be wrong. :)
Mikhelle (2 года назад)
Ibrahim Aldhoon CD4+ and CD8+ just basically stabilizes the binding of MHC 1 & 2 to the T cell receptor :) oh and they also play a role in MHC restriction so that only Th1 cells bind to MHC 1 and only Th2 cells bind to MHC 2
Ibrahim Aldhoon (3 года назад)
+Reece Adler​ thanks bro 👍👍
Reece Adler (3 года назад)
+Ibrahim Aldhoon CD4 T cells bind MHC II on antigen presenting cells (along with co-stimulatory molecules) and become either Th1, Th2 or Th17 (might be more but i dunno), these go on to coordinate further immune responses. CD8 T cells bind MHC I on any cell (except red blood cells which have no nucleus) and are activated into Cytotoxic T cells which kill infected cells directly (via induction of apoptosis)
Kendra Martin (3 года назад)
You do an amazing job explaining this system! When I'm looking at my lecture notes it's harder to make these connections. Now I have a question... My professor has on his notes that the dendritic cells are the only cells that carry both MHC II and MHC I. You are also saying B cells have this quality?
Elvira Hancock (2 года назад)
+Kendra Martin All nucleated cells (essentially all cells minus erytrocites) have MHC I proteins; while only APCs have MHC II proteins, however since they are also nucleated cells they carry MHC I as well.
Abdullah Yusuf (3 года назад)
This guy knows everything, he's the voice for organic chemistry and differential equations
Basically Delpan (1 год назад)
yes probably really simple stuff. Studying it in yr 11
Nicole (2 года назад)
this is pretty basic undergrad stuff. almost everyone with a bachelor's degree knows as much..
Saskia Kuik (3 года назад)
really helpful! thanks :)
Whole Food Plant-Based Man (3 года назад)
Lesson learned:  Shady characters need to die.
Victor Valdez (3 года назад)
Sam Gee is a dick, he makes it very clear what's going on and explains everything really well. The video is done very well. The problem is you Sam Gee, not the video. Thanks for the video Khan Academy, love you guys.
Sam (3 года назад)
It's too fucking difficult to follow what he's saying. "During the maturation process 'dadoduuuhh uhhh' the APC is uhhhhh"
Monkey D. Luffy (3 года назад)
+Lorenzo Dio The only thing +Sam Gee has received is down-votes...
Lorenzo Dio (3 года назад)
+Sam Gee I don't see you making videos with 200k+ views a 98% thumbs up rate
Monkey D. Luffy (3 года назад)
+Sam Gee Then don't watch it.
Chris Jay (3 года назад)
Im trying to find in your video a reference to APC licensing but can't :( Its where T helper cells bind to a dendritic cell via the mhc class 2 and cd4+, (as well as cd40-40L) and then allow the dendritic cell to express the processed peptides on the surface of their MHC 1, to allow the recruitment of cytotoxic cd8+ t cells?
Qiu Rong Koh (3 года назад)
thank you so much~now I manage to understand the whole process~~
Jose Hernandez (3 года назад)
Nienke (3 года назад)
Thanks so much 
Jeanette Vega (4 года назад)
"That looks shady...you need to die." This literally made me laugh out loud, ahahaha. Great stuff, thanks for the visuals.
Adham Hamadneh (4 года назад)
Thanks a lot , actually this is the only source I completely understood the process from .Thank you again . I have a question , please . Why Tc doesn't kill B or dintritic cells while B and dintitic cells have an MHC1 proteins , like other nucleated cells ? 
Diby Doodle (10 месяцев назад)
I think B and Dendritic cells have MHC II
x3baybeee (4 года назад)
i think i learn better watching these videos at 2x the speed lol
MLM10492 (4 года назад)
"That looks shady...you need to die." Hahahaha.
Ray (2 года назад)
+MLM10492 I literally laughed out loud :'D
jessica singh (4 года назад)
you have made my life so much easier.. thank you. You are a legend!
George Eliozov (4 года назад)
This is better then Science Fiction!!!! Amazing! Thank you so much!
Andy Salter (4 года назад)
I thought the T-cell receptors are degenerative which means they are not entirely specific and can bind to many antigens?
Josh Gilbert (4 года назад)
fantastic video, finally understand, you're a legend 
iamanubertuber (4 года назад)
In the case of HIV infection, where CD4 T helper cell is infected with virus, do the MHC I of CD4 present HIV fragments, and consequently get destroyed by CD8 cytotoxic effector cells?
Jerry Liao (4 года назад)
much nice visuals, many help. so thank you
Exhausted NHS Worker (5 лет назад)
I love the enthusiasm this guy has in his voice
Excuse me but how can Tc go through to the direction of the cancer or infected cell if it stay only in the lymphoid follicle or does it travel around the circulation?
Mikhelle (2 года назад)
พิษณุพงษ์ เตชะอาภรณ์กุล probably due to the DAMPs released by the infected/stressed cells
scramblesk8 (5 лет назад)
Love your videos. great idea using different colors and breaking it down with imagines. So much easier than reading a definition. Thanks!
dyino brown (5 лет назад)
Hey guys. Terrific film. My pal was once overweight. He enhanced himself from 293lbs of pure fat into 214lbs of full-strength lean muscle. That shit was outrageous! I just joined myself coz I'm planning to get big muscles. He used the Muscle Building Bible (Google it)...
Camberlen A (5 лет назад)
Without these videos, I would of failed the test, then the class, gave up on college, and ended up as a homeless bag lady.
abcanw (5 лет назад)
Hisham (5 лет назад)
thank you so much !!!!
Jessica Prieto (5 лет назад)
Debo (5 лет назад)
You really solved my problem with mhc1 and mhc11. Thanks.
Amena Mahmood (5 лет назад)
awesomeeeee...i learn alot.
Katya Mosis (5 лет назад)
"hey that looks shady.. you need to die"
faus gorgo (5 лет назад)
Ever heard of apoptisis?
agarwalsurbhi221 (5 лет назад)
thank u so much u have made my problem in mhc1 simpler.
MrsLuvbeetle (5 лет назад)
So its kind of like a cellular suicide note.
Barak Peretz (5 лет назад)
How would leukaemia occur in phagocytes.
Rajvinder Kaur (5 лет назад)
Also, Thelper cell only recognize 12-18 peptide and has complemenatry receptor for Mhc2 only and they can't bind to Mhc 1 unless and untill there is a mutatio
Rajvinder Kaur (5 лет назад)
Reason why Tcyto cell binds to MHC1 is beacuse Tcyto has cd8+ signal that has its complementary receptor on Mhc1 only, plus Cd8 cells binds only to the peptide having length 9-12 A.a, So the chances of binding Tcyto to Mhc2 is not possible, but Tcyto can recognize Mhc1 which is even present on the lympho cells as they are nucleated one ,and can kill them .
Rachel Louise Joyce (5 лет назад)
Thankyou so much for your video's they are amazing and really helping me revise:) Keep it up x
Rohit Singh Rawat (5 лет назад)
imran alam (5 лет назад)
was never so clear about this before... thank u osm videao to learn
wonkeyleggs (5 лет назад)
I totally agree, there needs to be a Khan-uni degree
Percules (5 лет назад)
well, u get the motivation from uni atleast :P
PurposefulPawn (5 лет назад)
dude you have the best video about the lymphocytes on youtube! thanks!
Filip Korec (5 лет назад)
Hi.Thanks for another great video,but i'd like to ask one question.Can Tcyto lymfocytes bound to the MHC2(and kill leukocyte maybe) too or they are just bounding with MHC1?And can T helper lymfocytes become activated by MHC1?
iliana d (6 лет назад)
"heres a little piece of it...............MR T CELL" LMAOLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
BMTaher (6 лет назад)
Is there anyway we can thank you enough?
PsychoJowJow (6 лет назад)
maria y (6 лет назад)
uhh yeah
leena makhdoum (6 лет назад)
you better kill me loooooooooooooool like ittttt much! :$
Shayna Bourgeois (6 лет назад)
" I am a virus, I am a virus making maching, you better kill me!" This is great! If only my instructor made her lectures like this! Thanks for being a lifesaver!!
CRUZifyre (6 лет назад)
Incredible videos on cytotoxic and helper t cells, B cells.... These helped me understand more than the college classroom! Thank you!!!
tori roe (6 лет назад)
ah thankyou so much, so helpful you explain things so well! you're amazing :)
lsu0824 (6 лет назад)
"YOU BETTER KILL ME!" lol I love it
Bodyskillz2011 (6 лет назад)
thank you very much man its really easy and important better than our books
Deedles Doodles (6 лет назад)
This is absolutely amazing! you saved another medical student trying to connect the dots of the immune system! Good luck with everything, these videos are so so helpful :)
Delke (6 лет назад)
Thank you so much!!!! You helped me to get ready for the exam, keep the good work! Greetings from Serbia!! Pozdrav iz Srbije!
Leah Pearl (6 лет назад)
excellent! thank you!
Tom Baddeley (6 лет назад)
I have exams coming up, You have saved my ass!! (a grateful medical student)
Shhambolic (6 лет назад)
the awkward moment when you realise youre paying uni loads of fees to educate you, but the place you learn the most are free videos on the internet...
0000 (6 лет назад)
You are awesome! I feel like I should be paying you $363 a credit hour! Thanks for breaking it down for me!
YaMahaWorld (6 лет назад)
thanks, i always misspell this word xD next i want to write it i'll remember your reply :)
YouSirName (6 лет назад)
It's spelled college
Adam Barrios (6 лет назад)
Man !!!You are tha MAN!!!!
YaMahaWorld (6 лет назад)
Mr. Salman I wish if you were my teacher, i'm currently in basic immunity course at collage and the doc make it boring and not understandable I'm glad that i found your channel, you helped me a lot and made it more interesting to study :) Thank you so much for your efforts
MsRsclips (6 лет назад)
i'm doing still fine with lung cancer :) sometimes pain in the chest and can't breath really great but :D
7735jay (6 лет назад)
@MsRsclips i am sorry you have lung cancer but i am quite sure Mr. Khan was not trying to minimize cancer he was trying to show us the students how a cell infected with cancer would show itself on the cell surface. Realize also that he is not showing his face, using a pointer etc. all he has is his voice so he has to do different intonations to make his point.
MsRsclips (6 лет назад)
Don't make jokes about cancer please think about how it would be like if you had it i'm having lung cancer right now and i am having the maximum pain you can get right now and i'm on youtube...
Ronza Arraf (6 лет назад)
God bless u
bambam14 (6 лет назад)
the 1 dislike is from the cancerous cell that is supposed to be kill by cytotoxic T cell...hahaha!
nathuwjohn (7 лет назад)
Excellent videos! Thanks! Now, could you come take my test for me?! ;)
Ain Zubaidah Ayob (7 лет назад)
so these are what i've been learning in my lectures all this while!!thank you! u make my revision more enjoyable :))
Nirvana87 (7 лет назад)
How can someone possibly dislike this?? Awesome teacher!
EvelynNLB (7 лет назад)
your the best!!
Zane H (7 лет назад)
10 minutes before my test and I finally understand this material
Elnora4ka (7 лет назад)
Thank you very much for your helpful lessons! God bless you!
ghost2me (7 лет назад)
hey shady guy!! love these videos so much!! thanx a lot!! :D
themexiranian (7 лет назад)
i just like that you are drawing things out and explaining them, rather than pointing to an unmoving ppt presentation thats been molding around for years and years
Surajit Ghosh (7 лет назад)
This is an amazing video and exactly what i wanted to know regarding the T cells. so thanks a lot for the pleasent lecture.
Dennis Johansen (7 лет назад)
Thanks alot...This is great :) Although.. Neurons (Nerve cells) doesn't have MHC-I receptors on them. (?) Isn't that correct? But except for that one type of cells, all nucleated cells DO have MHC-I receptors..

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