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Weak Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics #2

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Hank continues our series on the four fundamental forces of physics by describing the weak interaction, which operates at an infinitesimally small scale to cause particle decay. Watch the video on Strong Interaction: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yv3EMq2Dgq8 Like SciShow on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Follow SciShow on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow References: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/funfor.html#c4 http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/funfor.html#c5
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Текстовые комментарии (1487)
bladd nun (6 дней назад)
It's very easy to understand why electromagnetic force and gravity are inversely proportional to the distance squared. There is also the London dispersion force, which is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance due to being based on fluctuations in charge distribution. I always wondered why the weak interaction has such a short range. Is it due to the short life of the W and Z bosons?
نّ (7 дней назад)
u are great teacher
Bill Skinner (15 дней назад)
That was "the best" explanation of the "weak force" I have ever heard. But it leaves a question. Is it appropriate to call it a force? For example, does it, applied over time, create a change in momentum? Or should it be called an interaction, but not a "force"?
[RTR] Trinity (1 месяц назад)
I don't get one thing... It wasn't mentioned in the video but it still has to do with this topic. More specifically, I don't understand why there is a electron anti-neutrino in beta decay. In the equation it makes sense because we need an anti-lepton to make the equation correct but I don't get where its coming from. Is it another part of the electron neutrino which gets 'emitted'? Or anything else?
Isa Mekail Mahmud (2 месяца назад)
so what cause force carriers to exist
Ameer Hamza (1 месяц назад)
Your question is like asking "what cause the atom to exist"?
Road Runner (2 месяца назад)
I thought the w force just causes things & stuff to decay, rot, new to old...now I'm confused...WTF???'
Prezla men (2 месяца назад)
Thank you!
LibraNerdGames (2 месяца назад)
tfw you learn something new but like... it terrifies you
Prince Singh (3 месяца назад)
Caelan Adomeit (3 месяца назад)
Just to let you people know, electromagnetism and the weak force have been combined into the electroweak force
Koshimaru Kisara (4 месяца назад)
a force for really small things (Weak) a force for a small things (Strong) a force for big things (EletroMag) a force for really big things (Gravity)
Symbol Guy (1 месяц назад)
So the weak force is responsible for decay via exchange of bosons between subatomic particles. But what does that decay look like? Helium becoming hydrogen for example?
Thay Guan En (2 месяца назад)
heh thats bullcrap
Bobby (4 месяца назад)
It all sounds like crap to me. I'm not convinced that there are any such beasts as protons and neutrons - they are just mixtures of quarks - whatever they are. So the nucleus of an atom is a mixture of quarks & by the principles of quantum physics they can be in more than one location at the same time. Therefore - you can't say that - " there's a proton and there's a neutron."
Bobby (1 месяц назад)
+Ameer Hamza I have. Did you know that neutrons are stable forever inside a nucleus and yet when removed as free neutrons they decay with a half life of about 10 minutes. Explain that?
Ameer Hamza (1 месяц назад)
Learn Quantum physics first
Crimsonfireball (4 месяца назад)
So weakforce makes neutron active. Interesting
Abhishek Kumar (4 месяца назад)
Brother,,,I just wanted to compare all fundamental four forces,, i am 12th grade student,,,my question is straight...Mathematical representation of weak and strong nuclear force
DIANA CALDERON (5 месяцев назад)
How long does the process of a carbon atom decaying take? Does it have to sit around for a while or does it change as soon as it interacts with a neutrino?
Avikash Nadan (5 месяцев назад)
Elementary Particles like quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons are they inside Proton OR Nucleus? Anyone?
IThinkWithMy Dick (7 месяцев назад)
So, does the weak interaction interact ONLY between a neutron & a neutrino? Or between ANY two particles consisting of quarks?
Maneesh Chandra Dande (8 месяцев назад)
You should probably make a video on the standard model of particle physics
Jonatan Åstrand-Ferris (8 месяцев назад)
The weak force is not weak due to interaction distance, but due to the mass of the force carriers. For an introductory explanation by a man sporting a bad mustach, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yOiABZM7wTU (Just after 8 min)
OrphanPaper (9 месяцев назад)
of course all this is only a observation of what happens when you add energy to a group of partials in an atomic accelerator and collided them , so its only the extemporaneous forces of the collusion they managed to capture and name according to the movement of a track left in a medium which is presumed to be but may not actually represent the fundamental forces which are repulsion and attraction a derivation of temperature and function of the excited state of a string which in compensating to the excitation internal bifurcates giving rise to wave functions which allowed through the action of that function balance in the creation of compensatory photon mass at varying levels of excitement,,,,,,flavors ???some one be on the hooker to long
HINDU CODE (9 месяцев назад)
the four fundamental forces have all ready been described in hinduism please read this kindle ebook https://www.amazon.in/dp/B07CWB47H1/
bsntwai mangang (9 месяцев назад)
Awesome science!😁
tharak ram (9 месяцев назад)
It's boring class😕😕 Use animation to make much more effective 😇😇
alejandro garcia (9 месяцев назад)
thanks for the video the weak force is the force i understood the least
Alexander SHE (11 месяцев назад)
you are taking too fast you idiot
Raymond Goins (11 месяцев назад)
Hey yall Ive noticed that the 4 fundamental forces parallel the "4 Loves" that CS Lewis identified.  I hope y'all check that out (the book and the connection [and what it might mean])
dippycatcrochet (11 месяцев назад)
is this beta plus or beta minus decay because it seems to be a mix of both and I'm so confused
jeno michael (11 месяцев назад)
won't the electron and proton collide after formation
Shaun Mallawaarachchi (1 год назад)
Carbon 14 wouldnt be dating :,)
Jordan Fanapour (1 год назад)
Wait if neutrons have 2 down quarks, then why is it a neutral particle instead of a negative one.
Hugo Catt (1 год назад)
Jordan Fanapour it has an up quark (udd) u has a charge of +2/3 and d has -1/3 so makes it neutral
Mr. Anonymous (1 год назад)
electroweak force make a video on it
Drew O'Meara (1 год назад)
you are so awesome man, thank you for monk-level animation
Sky Leonidas (1 год назад)
wtf is mass then?
AwP (1 год назад)
Orenotter (1 год назад)
Wait... aren't electrons much more massive than neutrinos? Where does the mass come from?
Gabriel Pichorim (1 год назад)
I don't get how this is a force. Ok, it changes the identity of the particles involved in the process. Soo, shouldn't it be considered a reaction instead of a force? I mean if it is a force it should accelerate a particle, or (together with other forces) put it at a rest state, right? Before this video I used to think this was the force which prevents the electrons to collapse into the atom core by electromagnetic attraction
Anjali Dutta (1 год назад)
Hey is this the mechanism behind beta particle decay?
Beckham Lee (1 год назад)
I don't understand ! ;-;
Alex Kim (1 год назад)
Hi Hank, thank you for making this wonderful video. If and when we can make particle detectors that are "quantum-ly fast" or sensitive enough to inspect the transformations of protons into neutrons and large mass quarks' transformation into down quarks, do you think we might observe other "ghost" particles, force carriers, or perhaps other unidentified subatomic elements we haven't observed yet? I ask this since quantum computing may be able to help us observe the sub-atomic world better in the near future and was wondering if you in academia-world heard of anything in the works. Thank you for your time! You have a new subscriber!
Alex Kim (1 год назад)
what if a negatively charged boson approached a neutron (or a proton)?... or, does that not happen in nature (as far as we can detect as of yet?).
deepali panse (1 год назад)
Which software you use for editing ?
John Poole (1 год назад)
I understand that it is the Pauli exclusion principle "force" that supports a white dwarf star. That is, the electrons don't want to occupy the same quantum state and so resist the collapse of the white dwarf. So this appears to be a force that opposes gravity and prevents a white dwarf from collapsing. But which of the four forces is this?
@all (1 год назад)
Hank seems to have misinterpreted a Feynman Diagram of beta- decay, where the anti-neutrino's arrow is drawn in the opposite direction (as is convention for antiparticles). The weak decay happens spontaneously (without a coincidental neutrino) and a W- boson is emitted, which quickly decays into an electron and an electron anti-neutrino.
Akkeio Pather (1 год назад)
how does this relate to antimatter? what are the - electrons called quarks?
drania76 (1 год назад)
Neutrion means a small neutron in Italian. The term was first coined by Fermi.
mad cobra (1 год назад)
Does radioactive atoms need a neutrino to decay? They cant decay themselves?
Sir Sir (1 год назад)
So the weak force is the one reasonable for Transgenders!
Braeden Young (1 год назад)
Wait - if the up quark has a poitive electrical charge, and the down quark has a negative electrical charge, and neutrons consist of one up and two down - then shouldn't the neutron be negativly charged!?
Celarc Gaming (1 год назад)
"Quarks have 6 different flavors. Vanilla, chocolate, root beer....... sorry."
REME (1 год назад)
Great video. Thank you
NobleWood104 (1 год назад)
When does this happen, randomly? Does this happen in our bodies?
Joshua Mwaniki (1 год назад)
What If there are 2 up quarks and 1 down quark and the W boson interacts with the 1 down quark via the weak force? Would that mean all the quarks would face up? If so, what does this mean for the neutron/proton?
Combat King 0 (1 год назад)
If you capture a lepton, will it give you it's pot of gold?
孙博一 (1 год назад)
at 2:41 , what does he meant by "there"? Does that means the weak force pulls W Boson into the neutron?
Lanre Logan (1 год назад)
You said the SNF helps keep quarks of protons and neutrons together, could've sworn it only holds the protons to other protons >.>
Anto Jude Geoffrey (1 год назад)
Where did the charge comes from? Kindly make a video about this. Because its confusing that no one could answer correctly.
Barchueetadonai (1 год назад)
If a neutrino gives up a W+ boson to become an electron, where does it get the extra mass from (electrons have much greater mass-energy than neutrinos as far as I know)?
Mgo Minasian (1 год назад)
what is the relationship with radioactivity and the weak force??
TechChat (1 год назад)
thanx for the help
Marlon&Louis Fire Hacks (1 год назад)
This is how alchemy is made in Full Metal Alchemist LOL
Engineer Ahmed (1 год назад)
Wrong info given here. Neutron mass = electron mass + proton mass Clearly Neutron decays into electron proton pair
iosef 333 (1 год назад)
Extra: to make plutonium is as easy as hiting natural ocurring uranium (U-238) with a neutron, creates U-239 wich, as shown in this video, transforms 2 protons to 2 neutrons making plutonium-239, the one used in nuclear bombs. To get neutrons is as easy as, when an alpha particle hit beryllium or alluminium gives a neutron, so you encapsulate the uranium in a neutron reflector box (like tungsten carbide), put beryllium in wait and get it out, and chemically separate the plutonium, start the proces again. Warning, do not exposure too long or Pu-240 will be produced, wich is bad because it can fissile automaticly, starting a chain reaction.
Some Guy (1 год назад)
If one could prevent neutrinos from interacting with something, would that be a way to stop particle decay?
MikeRosoftJH (1 год назад)
Well, no; the video is misleading on this part. A radioactive nucleus spontaneously emits a W- boson, which then decays into an electron and an anti-neutrino; this is the beta- decay. In case of beta+ decay, it instead emits a W+ boson, which decays into a positron and a neutrino.
ahmedshinwari (1 год назад)
The video actually did not explain the weak forces much. So thumbs down.
mrgaiusbonus (1 год назад)
And the Z boson just sits back and watching the subatomic hanky panky? seriously what is its job?
MikeRosoftJH (1 год назад)
The Z boson is a heavy counterpart of the photon; in particular, it is its own antiparticle. It is involved in "neutral current" interactions which don't change the identity of the involved particles (but makes the particles exchange kinetic energy and momentum), such as scattering of neutrinos by matter.
Dr. Whis Grant (1 год назад)
Dr. Whis Grant (1 год назад)
Aryan Soni (2 года назад)
what if we do the carbon to nitrogen experiment with radioactive element would it still be radioactive ??
ibitedeadskunks (2 года назад)
Wait, so you have a neutrino VERY close to a neutron, which then becomes a proton and an electron after the exchange of W+. But proton being positively charged and have significant mass, and our electron being negatively charged, at that close distance wouldn't the electron be pulled in towards the proton? Note I am completely ignoring the remaining protons in the the nucleus for the sake of the example.
Sir Iodine (2 года назад)
How is a Neutrino and I similar? Both are constantly penetrating your mum
Bob Webster (2 года назад)
weak interaction In which Hank's countenance resembles that of Beverly Hofstadter's
The Primeval Void (2 года назад)
Wait, I have a question here. You're telling me that radioactivity and nuclear decay happens because neutrinos brush past atomic nuclei?
Mathias Fantoni (2 года назад)
Great explanation. However, where do these neutrinos come from? I only know about the electrons and positrons surrounding the nuclei of matter and antimatter. And that they move closer to the nuclei when loosing energy emitting photons.
Jason Xu (2 года назад)
wait the carbon-14 and nitrogen-14 atom gifs were the same
Abdul Wadood (2 года назад)
need answer what happend to positron which changed into electron. why the number of electron is same in nitrogen as it was in carbon
Elduro687 (2 года назад)
what was the neutrino before losing the positive W boson?
Elduro687 (2 года назад)
how would the Z boson act?
Windsaw (2 года назад)
The most common examples would be interactions where a neutrino acts on other particles. It has to be Z-Bosons since a neutrino only interacts weakly and has no charge. For example a neutrino can knock an electron out of an atom. This transfer of momentum is transmitted by a Z-Boson. Another example would be if a neutrino hits a deuterium atom, which splits the neutron from the proton. This way solar neutrinos are detected. In general, Z-Boson interaction are relatively rare and except maybe in supernovae (my own speculation here) have little importance in the universe.
Melkor, The First Dark Lord (2 года назад)
How does the neutrino know to send a W Boson into an unstable nucleus and not any nucleus?
MikeRosoftJH (1 год назад)
The video is rather confusing. It's not that the nucleus interacts with an incoming neutrino (such interactions do occur but are extremely rare); the nucleus spontaneously emits a W- boson which decays into an electron and an anti-neutrino (or, in case of a W+ boson, a positron and a neutrino).
giannisniper96 (2 года назад)
protons don't decay that's one of the predictions of the standard model, at least not within the next 10^35 years
CroSs xD (2 года назад)
ravenous Thanks for repeating what Hank said. It is a rare occurence for neutrinos to interact with the proton because in an atom, it is mostly empty space so a neutrino which moves very close to the speed of light can just pass by without interacting with anything.
ravenous (2 года назад)
From my understanding, its a very rare occurrence for a neutrino to actually hit the nucleus ?? Doesnt make sense to me but thats what i heard
ravenous (2 года назад)
Protons decay into neutrons through weak force ie. Neutrino making a W+ boson and changing a neutrons down quark into an up one making it a proton and the neutrino would turn into a positron
Novitatis Veritatis (2 года назад)
If I win the lottery, I'm donate $1M to this channel.
Christopher Minge (1 год назад)
DangerZone (2 года назад)
So quarks are like wiping your ass? One up, one down, and one to polish.
Toaster Strooder (1 год назад)
No, it's one up, one down, one charming, one strange, one on top, and one on bottom. Far simpler than the number 2!
quest0 (1 год назад)
Władca Wymiaru Polerowanie polega na wygładzaniu
Władca Wymiaru (1 год назад)
Nope. Polish znaczy polerować/szlifować. No i dawałem tylko pozdrowienia :\
quest0 (1 год назад)
Polish to czasownik wygładzać
Władca Wymiaru (1 год назад)
Greeting from Poland ! :\
Richard Le (2 года назад)
You forgot to mention that an electron antineutrino is also emitted from beta decay.
Mackenzie Stuart (2 года назад)
neutrinos rarely interact with anything, because they have incredibly little mass (as I understand it) and fly around at near the speed of light. When they lose the W+, I would assume they lose mass, do does this mean that an electron has less mass that a neutrino? Does this mean protons has more mass than neutron?
Hermaeus Jackson (2 года назад)
This was the one force that i've really understood. This was a helpful video.
赵哲 (2 года назад)
in a supernova explosion protons+electrons makes neutrons, but here you add a w boson to a neutron to make protons. HOW IS THAT POSSIBLE?
Ghost7856 (2 года назад)
What if we threw a positron at the neutron instead?
ravenous (2 года назад)
Well neutrinos are neutral so a positron would make an antineutrino of that flavor and would basically be the same as a normal neutrino (neutral charge) but it would have a negative spin, basically the same interaction would occur :P (i should state neutrinos decay into w+, w-, and in rare rare cases Z bosons (they decay too though into w bosons)) so yeahhhh.. Long story short its the same thing XD
Zvonimir Družianić (2 года назад)
I think we didn't throw electron here. The neutrino lost W+ and became an electron.
megan5815 (2 года назад)
Normally I understand the complex science distilled into comprehensible topics for liberal arts majors like me. But not quantum mechanics. People start throwing around quarks and stuff that is apparently smaller than that (which is a thing I didn't know) and I just can't. Physics is something I'll just never understand.
Dan Trivates (2 года назад)
So what about the Z Boson - what does it do? this video could have been a good 10 minutes
SaberTooth2251 (2 года назад)
sooo...two questions 1.) wouldn't this imply that a neutron is actually negatively charged? 2.) does this mean an electron is lighter than a neutrino?
Richard Le (2 года назад)
1. Down quarks have -1/3 charge and up quarks have +2/3 charge so overall, the neutron has neutral charge. (2/3-1/3-1/3=0) I'm not sure about 2 though.
YL Storage (2 года назад)
Fact: Electron is way way heavier than a neutrino Question: how does a neutrino gain so much mass after losing a w- boson thus turning into an electron?
opticnirvana (2 года назад)
How is the weak force a "force"? It doesn't seem to attract anything, just change a nucleon by changing one of its quarks.
MendMyWings 7 (2 года назад)
Have I been pronouncing quark wrong? Is it really pronounced like the first part of quarter? I'e been pronouncing it 'kwahk' x
Andrew Lopez (2 года назад)
I'm gonna have to watch the whole series again
Jack Kierath (2 года назад)
was wondering why a vid by the well known hank green was this low quality... its from 2012, not to say that this is bad, just that in comparison to his newer vids it is :P
Mikle Talalaevskiy (2 года назад)
Excuse me guys.You're telling me an atom can DECAY to a higher proton count? Do neutrons have higher change to just flip one of their quarks then protons have?
mdcourtney82 (2 года назад)
DoomMantia Is this where the electron gains its mass from compared to the neutrino? Does the W boson deduct mass?
ShotgunLlama (2 года назад)
Also it has the same total number of hadrons in its nucleus, and elements with low atomic numbers(like carbon) tend to be stable with roughly equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
DoomMantia (2 года назад)
Consider that the neutron has a slightly larger mass than the proton and it will sound less strange.
upwardstumbler (2 года назад)
what are quarks made up of?
Pedro Alves (2 года назад)
supposedly, it is indivisible, but who knows what we can find next?
michael einhorn (2 года назад)
fundamental particle no components
Aman Rubey (2 года назад)
you know physics as well as chem
Laura Rothman (2 года назад)
up down strange charm
Totally not a spam bot (2 года назад)
Then the electron flies out as beta radiation, and then is stopped by a few metres of air or some aluminum
King Hetzer (2 года назад)
Can you do a video on string theory
Aumedi Wibisana (2 года назад)
Is it possible for the weak foce to change the Proton into Neutron? if it is possible, How?.
Symbol Guy (8 месяцев назад)
What about the electroweak force? I know it’s the former unification of electromagnetism and the weak force, but while I know what each of those two do, what does the electroweak force? Or at least, what do we believe it used to do?
Veritosophy (2 года назад)
+ravenous cool thanks man
ravenous (2 года назад)
Veritosophy well bosons are just energy carriers, like photons, it doesnt create energy out of nowhere though its more like... Particle 1 with charge of one and particle 2 with charge of 1, particle 2 emits a "force carrier" carrying its charge and giving that charge to particle 1, making particle 1 with a charge of 2 and particle 2 with a charge of 0
Veritosophy (2 года назад)
What is a boson? It looks like bosons can keep being given to up or down quarks, changing it's 'polarity'. Where does the energy go?
DoomMantia (2 года назад)
Basically the same way, but the W boson would be negatively charged instead, thus changing the neutrino into a positron instead of an electron, and changing an up quark into a down quark instead of the other way around. A variant of this is _electron capture_, where there's a passing electron instead of a passing neutrino; this electron turns into a neutrino the same way the neutrino turned into a positron in the previous case, and the rest is the same.

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