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Strong Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics #1a

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Part one of a four part series on the fundamental forces (or interactions) of physics begins with the strong force or strong interaction - which on the small scale holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons and other hadron particles. Like SciShow on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Follow SciShow on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow
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Text Comments (1560)
word process brian (15 hours ago)
which came first tesla three phase electric current or the model of color charge of the strong force?
Gakell (18 hours ago)
What I wanna know is, where did quarks come from? Did they exist before atoms existed in the very short period right after the big bang? Did they combine to become atoms at the beginning of the universe or did they exist already paired up in 3 quarks within atoms at the beginning of the universe? If quarks are a fundamental particle that creates matter, are there anti-quarks that exists for anti-matter?
King Sisyphus (2 days ago)
Chaos Knight brought me here!!
Tasty Time (1 month ago)
Do basic/fundamental forces influences each other?? Plz ans
Beth Playford (1 month ago)
sounds like a clingy friend. gluons, i understand i am that person too.
Pied Bagpiper (1 month ago)
An article that I stumbled upon said that Hadrons aren't made up of only 3 Quarks, but rather a buttload of them. That the number and type of charges that determine their type comes from having at least one more than the other. Like, say, 50 negatively-charged quarks and 51 positively-charged Quarks make a Proton, as apposed to only 1 negative and 2 positive, overall.
Fallen Royalist (3 months ago)
Its back!! yay!)
Aida Ghani (3 months ago)
I didn't expect to see Hank here. I have to say, I take a liking to these Green brothers.
Noah Williams (4 months ago)
So if positive charge is represented with positive numbers, and negative charge with a negative number, does one of these colors represent the imaginary number?
Eleeth Tahgra (4 months ago)
Question; why cant they choose a cooler sounding name? Like some jrpg force names...heck, even the name Gravity is waaay cooler than just "strong force".
Gerald Ladera (5 months ago)
Gluons acts like a Youtuber-influencer...
Capt Lautner (5 months ago)
Why are you talking so fast???? It’s supposed to be educational
Rubellite Fae (5 months ago)
Does the gluon leave the quark which results in a change of color, or does the color change which forces the gluon to another quark? Your diagram made it look like the gluon bounces over, waits for something, then moves on. Is that just for demonstration and they are constantly moving all over the place? Or do they actually hold for a moment? What all this is getting at is, how can a massless particle have all this energy to zip around and change colors? Follow-up question, is there a set number of gluons per hadron?
Rubellite Fae (3 months ago)
What I (think I) meant was, which is really causing which? Does the color change send the gluon away, or does the gluon bouncing off cause the color change? Another followup question, what happens regarding color in a quark-gluon plasma?
Skaianet (3 months ago)
Rubellite Fae In reality the gluon is bouncing between the quarks at the speed of light. Meaning it’s all very instantaneous and the “color change” is rapid.
Sevgi Ölmez (6 months ago)
excellent, Thank you
thanu thanusan (6 months ago)
can you explain about quantum chromodynamics
twinkle harchandani (7 months ago)
I really was not able to understand why protons are held together in nucleus by the movement of gluon from one quark to another inside a single proton/neutron?
long live Lemmy (7 months ago)
I have always wanted to do Quantum mechanic's math, but I can't because my knowledge of mathematics is so tiny...
barley fowatt (8 months ago)
I can't stand this form of video editing that seems to be popular with science videos. Very irritating. I think it's a way of not going further in depth on a given topic or something.
Arpan Chaubey (9 months ago)
I don't know about Quarks but YEAH!! my gaming PC is an awesome RGB product!! XD
Sonu Rana (9 months ago)
बहुत अच्छा वीडियो है बहुत जानकारी मिली।
juan pablo regalado (9 months ago)
I like your shirt
Devran Saka (9 months ago)
I sense a disturbance in The Force
William Sevy (11 months ago)
Ok. So if you could turn strong force into a weapon would that mean that it would create this ripple that destroys and then reforrms atoms in to the exact thin that it was before the ripple.
Jason Sommer (11 months ago)
Alright as I understand so far it should be possible for say a hydrogen atom to be made up of a nucleus of one quark with two Charming and one weird with an electron shell made also with too weird quarks. Standing result being a four more massive version of hydrogen correct?
sunnyrain4444 (11 months ago)
i dont get it
Ethar Yasser (11 months ago)
I don't get the part at 1:40 </3
Darcey Smyth (11 months ago)
Where does the gluon gets its energy from or how does it yank back the quarks
Ponk 80 (11 months ago)
it’s funny how everyone just says, this is how it is, but never explain why it is so.
Brain Outy (1 year ago)
So color force is the real 'god particle'. Thanks.
Tritone (1 year ago)
If I get all shards from the Triangle of Wisdom, will I have the entire force? Or is that only one aspect of the force?
hillock10 (1 year ago)
Although not a physicist, I'd like to suggest that your explanation of the strong force may be incomplete and possibly in error. Imagine this: The "Strong force" is the same as gravity. How could that be? I suggest that gravity and the strong force are proportional to the amount of mass and the rate of SPIN of the mass, which creates the attraction. I propose that protons are spinning at an exceedingly high rate in the nucleus, which causes attraction. Any two objects having mass and spin will be attracted to each other proportional to their mass and spin. That applies for protons as well as the earth, with huge mass that spins and attracts other mass objects. AND as you say, the force is only powerful as mostly a surface force. This is my observation.
Chris Hicks (9 months ago)
While interesting, the problem with this theory is that gravity just isn't that strong. The miniscule amount of mass that the quarks have is not enough to create a gravitational force to keep them together in the hadrons. Quantum chromodynamics is the best way to understand how we are kept together.
Dalir Kosimov (1 year ago)
What does a sub atomic duck say?
SAD BOY HOURS (9 months ago)
Dalir Kosimov quark
Aaron Z (1 year ago)
my brain hurts
Rudresh Shukla (1 year ago)
Ohkay so quarks usually are in pair of three and are stable because of strong field and its force carriers gluon ,now if the any one quark goes out of colour in which the baryon losses its stabilty and gluons stabilises it,isnt it possible that it will be converted into mesons if one quark losses it's connection to other two quarks ? and also i know that the examples of baryon types of hadron are proton and neutron itself but what are the examples of meson types of hadron ?
Rudresh Shukla (1 year ago)
In your introduction you said that the strong force not only HOLDS THE ATOM'S NUCLEUS togather but Also the hadrons from busting apart... now i know that force that works on individual hadron is colour forces and the one who works on nucleaus is stong force.... so what is the diffrence between strong force and nuclear force?
William Paek (1 year ago)
I hope you do more of these kind of videos that are substantial and relevant. I enjoy these more than the random topic short entertainment ones.
freeanergy (1 year ago)
hey what about the fart force. Can you make a video on fartons and how the fart force binds fartons..btw what is the force carrier for fartons that make them smell strange.. is it gluons that carry smell..ohh this is so exciting.. ifeel like im shaking and vibrating because the knowledge of the universe is flowing through me right now..aaaaaahhhh
Joshua Mwaniki (1 year ago)
Between quarks and electrons, which are smaller?
spaceenthusiast1 (1 year ago)
how is oxygen transported through our body (blood obviously) but why did our bodies come to use oxygen, compared to a more abundant source, like nitrogen ETC.
Aaron Forster-Jones (1 year ago)
Is this pun forced?
Duck Tape (1 year ago)
How did the strong force got confined to the atom nucleus in the first place?
FilthyMezla (1 year ago)
Ding Yi
lawman94 (1 year ago)
So, in theory, if a quark were to somehow fall out of its bond via the gluon, perhaps after a collision in the LHC, could the quark which held the gluon at that very moment reattach to two other quarks and thus create a new particle? Also, would that create a particle identical to its previous bond?
El mustapha el habzi (1 year ago)
you explain very well, keep doing videos like this
Chris Rivas (1 year ago)
During the coldwar nuclear physicist harnessed the power of spitting atom by shooting an alpha particle in U-28 and the reaction from the shooting particle would cause the Uranium to explode and cause other explosions around it. I believe that was called nuclear fission. Now my question is, does a nuclear reaction still affect the strong for of an atom ? and can all nuclear fission be strong force strong force fission but not all strong force fissions are nuclear fissions? 🤔🤔🤔
Nav Bravic (1 year ago)
Isn't it important to say that fundamental particles like quarks can't be broken down any further _as of now_ or _as far as we know_? I'm not a physicist, but I've heard many people say that it's possible that these particles are made up of even more fundamental particles.
Natalie Taylor (1 year ago)
I watched this video in order to get some info on interaction and help me understand atomic decay and whats actually inside the hadron etc... I though i understood until the comment section was all like "speed of light (C) is basically TIME itself. So the quarks would not even realise that anything has happened because anything that moves at C - Time stops" and " the gluon isn't really "moving" in the perspective of the quarks. They are more like, instantaneously teleporting?" and I was like WHOAH OK IM TOO DEEP IN THE INTERNET SOMEONE HOIST ME OUT- I DONT NEED ANOTHER NIGHT OF EXISTENTIAL QUESTIONING OK. Its 4 in the afternoon. Please send help. Im not a university student i promise.
J Attitude (1 year ago)
If a black hole is like a magnet and has a strong-force and is collecting particles and energy can it multiply the energy put in to it and generate more energy that make it put out more mass then it has taken in and make a new universe? Please complete the question and redefine it if some thing is missing.
Nishant Suresh (1 year ago)
Is there like, a mechanism inbuilt in quarks and gluons that enable the occurrence of different colours in the three quarks as the colours are changes?
Mimi Kal (1 year ago)
THANK YOU for making this video. Watching it is so much easier and quicker than studying Wikipedia for 5 hours.
Jonothan Stevens (1 year ago)
Physics question: what would happen if enough electrons were introduced to override the strong force. Basically, could electromagnetic force be stronger than the strong force. If it did could it split the atom?
T 9 (1 year ago)
Ok that was amazing.,... right up until the cuss word. The colored illustrations are so great! but the cuss words throw it all off for me.
Nikhil Waiker (1 year ago)
Is Hank drunk?
Heather Macdonald (1 year ago)
how i ever managed to scrape a 2 in chemistry i don't know....... so many words
Ethan Shitheer (1 year ago)
i managed to identify 3 of thr many fundamental force of Epic Nerdinesa -The Force -Speed Force -Mana Force
Achsah Rajimon (1 year ago)
if a meson is made out of quarks and antiquarks don't they cancel out each other.
Jose Lopez (1 year ago)
"These videos should be at least 10 minutes long IMHO." -A Curious Simpleton
iulianburlacu (1 year ago)
OMG THAT T-SHIRT...shut up and take my money :D
Jeeshant Choudhary (1 year ago)
This guy work with crash course
What about THE force?
Roy DaDanceGod (1 year ago)
he sounds very drunk
Christopher Lawson (1 year ago)
ray lin really dude? He talks fast, that's all. Don't criticize him!
aman oza (1 year ago)
i didnt understand shit , plz explain ( p.s. i jst cant imagine what he is sayin )
Jacquemin Kasters (1 year ago)
Thanks for the update boss, comes in real handy for understanding the more difficult subjects. Keep up making awesome video's!
Katianie9 (2 years ago)
I like your shirt Hank
Talia Marshall (2 years ago)
@00:27 should atoms have an apostrophe? Sorry I really don't like science I like English better so notice that kind of thing
DangerZone (2 years ago)
Woaaaaah you zoomed way too far in on hanks face here lol.
REME (2 years ago)
Great work Hank. Thanks for your passion for knowledge..... and sharing it.
UninownName (2 years ago)
If it travels at c, why is the "change time" required 0?
Joe Baumgart (2 years ago)
what about just "The Force?"
Joseph (4 months ago)
Zuckerburg 2.0 here
Christopher Lawson (1 year ago)
Hah, hah. I get it! Do you like Star Wars?
wincentto (2 years ago)
cool t-shirt
Aj Hietanen (2 years ago)
It finally happened! one of my professors used a scishow video in a class! (this series specifically) I am way too happy about this!
Toaster Strooder (1 year ago)
I actually found out about Scishow through my Physics teacher showing this in class!
Fedor Scheglov (2 years ago)
what happens if you snipe the gluon from the quark?
MikeRosoftJH (1 year ago)
Any particles that we observe are color-neutral, while both gluons and quarks carry a color charge. If you try to get a quark or a gluon away from the hadron, its energy will increase so much that it will form a quark-antiquark pair. (This occurs in particle accelerators during high-energy collisions of particles, and is responsible for the creation of "jets" - groups of particles travelling roughly in the same direction after the collision.)
Timothy Monk (2 years ago)
Bad things...
Andrew Lopez (2 years ago)
Nucleus electrons and protons break down into quarks, quarks can't be broken down, quarks are accompanied by strong force carriers which are gluons and leptons. das alot
Sick Dece (2 years ago)
No neutrons and protons can be broken down into quarks, they are hadrons, electrons can't they are leptons.
PCAXE (2 years ago)
I thought the strong force has nothing to do with the atoms held together... it plays a role only on the scale of the nucleus.
Griffin Ray (2 years ago)
What about the Speed Force?
Ike Okereke (5 months ago)
OldDrunkBastard Well, both of you are kind of right.
Elim Chan (1 year ago)
yo i like how he has to friggin explain his joke because of you guys peace OUT
thanwemvm (1 year ago)
What are you fucking jay? ( jay garrick)
William Lockhart (2 years ago)
+OldDrunkBastard In no way I was implying that I am an authority. However, I do study physics quite in depth, I just had a brain fry. No worries though, thanks for the correction. I hate giving out false information.
OldDrunkBastard (2 years ago)
+William Lockhart Well I mean I'm sorry if I came off as salty, it's nothing personal and I don't think less of you as a person for not knowing or anything, it's just it seemed rude to me that you tried to correct Griffin and act like an authority on the matter when you had the wrong information
Josu Gambee (2 years ago)
The force is strong with you...
HalcyonSerenade (2 years ago)
If I interpreted my readings correctly, the Strong Force is so strong that attempting to pull apart two quarks (and thus resist the Strong Force) requires so much energy that, at a certain distance, two new quarks will pop into existence to make two smaller "tubes" rather than the longer one. I guess it requires *so much* energy that you eventually equal the energy of two new quarks and the energy literally converts into mass because THAT would be a lower-energy state than the gluon tube getting longer.
Tom Badger (2 years ago)
It's "qu-ARR-ks" there's an A sound in there. It's not spelled 'quorks' so why would you say quorks.
its your uncle bourbon (2 years ago)
Erlkönig (2 years ago)
It's there only one gluon in each nucleon? If "yes", wouldn't that mean that the time the gluon travels from one Quark to another the nucleon is actually not white in charge. Which would be half the time.
Erlkönig (1 year ago)
MikeRosoftJH Thank you for the explanation, it helped me a lot! PS: I don't think anybody understands it in its entirety.
MikeRosoftJH (1 year ago)
No, that's not how it work. A gluon carries a color charge; in particular, a color and an anti-color. For example, a red quark emits a red-antigreen gluon, which is absorbed by a green quark which becomes red. So overall, the particle is still color-neutral. You can't really say that a proton contains a single (or three, or a hundred, etc.) gluon; quantum mechanics doesn't work that way. It isn't even entirely accurate to say that it contains three quarks! The best thing you can say is that at any given time it contains three quarks, and it also contains (or may contain, or there's a certain probability that it contains, or it doesn't really contain but the particle behaves as if it did contain) an arbitrary amount of gluons and quark-antiquark pairs. (Yes, I am being deliberately vague. In quantum physics you can't say: "This is precisely what happens"; instead, it deals with probabilities and wave functions. I didn't actually study quantum physics, but I have read a bit about it in popular-science books and on the Internet; I understand it well enough to be able to say that I don't really understand it at all. :-)
woah (2 years ago)
ZetanCrisp (2 years ago)
Have quarks always existed or did they come into being somehow?  How?  Where does the 'physical matter' come from originally, to make a quark?
Acacia Girl (2 years ago)
Liking that voice buddy! Great passion I dig it
邓皓天 (2 years ago)
This is really cool, but how is this fact found out?
Samuel Kaine (2 years ago)
Weird hair day.
Zach (2 years ago)
Don't all quarks have either a positive or negative charge? How is this not just the electrostatic force at a smaller scale?
tony owen (2 years ago)
Very powerful, until the weakling gravity years this "strong force" apart via black hole :D. Excellent video though
Mr Anthropic (2 years ago)
Chaos is Fun…damental.
Dat Epic Fish (2 years ago)
+SomeRandomGuy omg report chaos knight
Joshua Merchant (2 years ago)
+SomeRandomGuy your profile pic fits the comment so well
Mubasshira Shaikh (2 years ago)
The 'colourless' idea seems wrong, as we see colour because of light. Light=photons. Here we're talking about gluons, not photons, which are different. Explaiiiiin, if anyone can?
Mubasshira Shaikh (2 years ago)
+Daniel Silva Thanks for the clarification!
Daniel Silva (2 years ago)
It's not that they have real color they say color to explain what we can not picture ( imagine ) so in order to make sense out of it they compare with something we can picture "color"
mryoyoserpico (2 years ago)
I've loved science since I was young! Especially physics!
Peter Bateman (2 years ago)
You say that they are yanked back with enormous force. Do we know an equation that describes how much force that is? So, for instance, a rubber band pulls with a force proportional to the distance that it has been stretched (multiplied by some spring constant.)
Kairo's Workshop (2 years ago)
Kairo's Workshop (2 years ago)
this channel makes it interesting
Tilek Mamutov (2 years ago)
Many thanks, Hank! At 01:39 you say "protons and neutrons can only contain one quark of each color at any given moment", but color changing shows at 02:11 all three quarks as green and after that most of the time after gluon changes color of one quark two quarks have the same color at the same time while gluon is "in transit" in the animation. Does gluon just change quark colors fast enough or color change happens for all quarks at the same time? Or something else entirely happens? :)
Tilek Mamutov i think that the animation couldn't show how fast the volors were changing
Ben L (2 years ago)
I have a few questions. How does the gluon "know" where to go (i.e. where the other quarks are)? Also, when the gluon is travelling between the quarks, wouldn't there be a tiny amount of time when the proton/neutron isn't colour-neutral? Is this allowed and if so, why? Finally, how do gluons relate to the force between the quarks? Do the gluons apply their force when they arrive at the quark? When they leave a quark? When they're travelling between quarks?
SAD BOY HOURS (9 months ago)
Ben L I can tell you that the colour changes fast enough that there won’t be any time in between to be neutral
TonboIV (1 year ago)
That does make some sense though. Any interaction between gluons would have to happen at the speed of light or slower, and presumably this would even include colour force. If the colour force interaction is happening at light speed, and the gluons are also moving at light speed, than everything would sinc up.
CroSs xD (2 years ago)
+HalcyonSerenade Thank you for not answering :D
HalcyonSerenade (2 years ago)
Remember that, at the quantum level, particles--especially massless ones--aren't strictly "objects" in the sense that we usually think about objects. Photons, for example, are the force-carriers for the Electromagnetic force, and famously act as both a particle and a wave simultaneously. Gluons are similar in that their "motion" doesn't exactly follow conventional ideas of motion and representing them as a small orb floating around between quarks is probably a just a visual convenience. So, basically, I don't really have an answer for "why do these things happen" because there's no rule at the quantum level that they *can't* happen--rather, that these things happening *are* the rules. I don't know the answer and I don't know whether the scientific community has a solid answer at all; but I do know that things are screwy enough at that scale that the best approach to gain an understanding of the current model is to go ahead and assume that "normal" physics doesn't apply at all. And, like with representing gluons as little orbs, a lot of visual representations are just visual conveniences to communicate a general idea rather than actually describe the physical process.
CroSs xD (2 years ago)
+Ben L Ah. I watched the video again. He said that the gluon is like a rubberband that is spinning. Not really a particle that is flying around. Basically all colours are not left out.
Jay Bajwa (2 years ago)
im 14 and im trying really hard to understand this haha. i get like 50 percent of it (i think)
zachell1991 (2 years ago)
i have heard that in theory if you could pull two quarks apart and that the energy used to pull them apart would create two new quarks E=MC2 thus you would have 4 quarks.
Tra Hackney (2 years ago)
i love these kinds of things and i understand most of it. but not all.i just love it though.but what are the top bottem charm and strange of quarks? are those the "flavors "
Tra Hackney (2 years ago)
i knopw it should be obvios to a person who studes this as much as i do. but i never see anything about it. and i didnt mean flavors. i meant colors
Nosaj Sebrof (2 years ago)
i listensed to your song, and alot of your other songs. and you are awesome, i realy like you and everything you represent. keep it up
yugenaware (2 years ago)
This is all "true" now, today and at this moment. The language he uses are stating facts. There are no real facts within science. We describe the way these interactions work, we do not state them as truth or fact. Science is an on going method of experimentation. Talking of it as truth does it a huge injustice... Description for now... Not finite. "As the island of knowledge grows so do the shores of our ignorance"
SuperBad (2 years ago)
Could gluon be dark energy
AlleyArtisticDTW (2 years ago)
dumb beginners question, may I ask what D and U stand for?
Johnathan Holmes (8 months ago)
More like, 'Can you said that again in idiot?' But seriously, can you repeat what he said but to those who screw physics.
WalkingClouds (2 years ago)
+AlleyArtisticDTW D and U are types of quarks, D for the Down quark and U for the Up quark, there are six types in total Down, Up, Strange, charm, Top and Bottom, yes I know they have funny names :P anyway the colors represent the charge of the quark not its' type, the Proton is made of two up quarks and one down and the Neutron is made of two down quarks and one up, there are many things that I still really don't understand this topic put you should always ask if you don't know something, no question is ever dumb, if I don't answer maybe someone else would, Good luck :)
Blake (2 years ago)
+AlleyArtisticDTW Up and Down, two kinds of quark. Normally you see them written in lower case. Two down quarks and one up quark make a neutron

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