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6 Supplements That Might Actually Help You

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More than half of Americans take a dietary supplement, but the truth is, most people don't need them. There are, however, a handful of supplements that can be helpful in some situations! Hosted by: Hank Green ---------- Sources: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/special-subjects/dietary-supplements/overview-of-dietary-supplements https://nccih.nih.gov/health/herbsataglance.htm https://nccih.nih.gov/health/supplements/wiseuse.htm https://nccih.nih.gov/health/vitamins https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/ExerciseAndAthleticPerformance-Consumer/ https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/WeightLoss-Consumer/ http://time.com/5118902/nih-dietary-supplement/ http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa1504267 ER visits http://time.com/4072487/supplements-cause-more-than-23000-er-visits-a-year/ https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2565733 supplement paradox https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/183163 selenium/vitE on prostate cancer https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/21/well/live/which-supplements-if-any-may-be-worth-your-money.html https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/15/well/eat/studies-show-little-benefit-in-supplements.html https://newsatjama.jama.com/2016/03/24/jama-forum-why-take-vitamin-d-supplements-if-they-dont-improve-health/ http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa052771 glucosamine combo http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp1210380 calcium & fracture https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3970298/ calcium & osteop http://www.cochrane.org/CD004760/NEUROMUSC_creatine-for-treating-muscle-disorders https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0173-z https://www.webmd.com/men/creatine#1 http://umich.edu/~medfit/supplementation/creatinebasicsandbiochemistry101705.html https://theconversation.com/health-check-which-sports-supplements-actually-work-83093 http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/special-subjects/dietary-supplements/creatine https://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/truth-about-beetroot-juice https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/865211 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4288952/ http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/103/1/25.abstract https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40279-016-0617-7 http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/nutritional-disorders/vitamin-deficiency,-dependency,-and-toxicity/folate https://medlineplus.gov/folicacid.html https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/folic-acid https://medlineplus.gov/neuraltubedefects.html https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/anemia-megaloblastic/ https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/anencephaly.html https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2667432 autism https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28756618 cochrane eyes https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1684847 AREDS2 2013 https://nccih.nih.gov/health/antioxidants/introduction.htm http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD000254.pub4/abstract http://www.rnib.org.uk/eye-health-eye-conditions-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd/nutritional-supplements-age-related https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/healthy-sleep/sleep-science/melatonin-for-sleep-does-it-work http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/special-subjects/dietary-supplements/melatonin https://nccih.nih.gov/health/melatonin https://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/tc/melatonin-overview#1 https://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/news/20171004/is-natural-sleep-aid-melatonin-safe http://news.mit.edu/2001/melatonin-1017 http://www.cochrane.org/CD001520/DEPRESSN_melatonin-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-jet-lag https://www.consumerreports.org/vitamins-supplements/does-melatonin-really-help-you-sleep/ http://news.mit.edu/2005/melatonin https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1370968/ BMJ 2006 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/lary.25689/full laryngoscope https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829880/ https://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/melatsum.htm http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0063773 https://aasm.org/study-finds-that-melatonin-content-of-supplements-varies-widely/ http://jcsm.aasm.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=30954 https://www.gwern.net/docs/melatonin/2005-brzezinski.pdf 2005 review https://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/st-johns-wort#1 http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/special-subjects/dietary-supplements/st-john%E2%80%99s-wort https://nccih.nih.gov/health/stjohnswort/sjw-and-depression.htm https://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/st-johns-wort https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-st-johns-wort/art-20362212 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed081p1450 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15492771 https://nccih.nih.gov/research/results/spotlight/120908.htm https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18843608
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Text Comments (1766)
Maddie O'Keeffe (2 days ago)
No Omega 3?
Sebastian Stabinger (5 days ago)
Surprised you did not mention vitamin D
Hossein Ghanaati (6 days ago)
surprised vitamin D is not on the list.
Helsinki Time (7 days ago)
In Finland during summer months a lot of people use melatonin to help them fall asleep when sun is up until 23h.
BK Bland (9 days ago)
Thanks, Hank!
John Galtman (10 days ago)
What were the race of those outside Germany in which Saint Johns wart did not work? If in Germany it worked, than in Nigeria it didn't, than in America it had a mixed outcome all in 1990. I think we can tell some people who it will work for and others who it will not, but then you will have to accept that we (humans) are not all of the same biology. Just a thought.
John Galtman (10 days ago)
Melatonin works like you would not believe, I take it every night, the family takes it on the nights they are having problems sleeping. These folks know how to find research, they have not apparently tested these things for themselves.
Target -Drone (10 days ago)
But we were told for decades nitrates were bad so don't eat cured meats so how is nitrate packed Beet Juice now a good thing? Not that I ever gave up BACON!!!
Rachel Taggart (10 days ago)
I hate when people interchange folic acid and folate. They are completely different forms. And folic acid is dangerous for people to take if they have an mthfr mutation in their DNA (which prevents breaking down folic acid approriately) and they should be taking methyl folate instead.
Dhynasah James (10 days ago)
"We are just internet people". 😂😂
Monkey-seeMonkey-do (10 days ago)
It’s pregnant *women*
fewchie (11 days ago)
I really like that he said 'pregnant people'.
lizard lace (11 days ago)
Heck yeah gender neutral terminology around pregnancy!
Roman F (11 days ago)
Pregnant people? Only a woman can be pregnant.
Mark R (12 days ago)
My biological clock seems to think this planet is on a 26-hour schedule. I can never get to sleep at the same time every night. I remain wide awake an extra hour or two each night and if I don't do anything about it, the time I sleep will slowly shift throughout the entire 24 hours. The way I somewhat handle it now is to roll with it but keep getting up at the same set time every day until I become a zombie then crash and fall asleep a couple hours early. I then stick to that new time for a few days and it's back to the 26-hour schedule. Nothing works to keep me getting to bed at a set time. I've tried everything. Like right now, I am only now getting sleepy enough to sleep and it is about an hour and a half after I went to sleep last night. Pisses me off that my internal clock isn't synced with this planet.
will riseabove (13 days ago)
of the vitamins and minerals as well as protein count in protein shakes, how much is actually helping your body? I've seen copper, b12, nician etc but most of that's probably filler or something right? been wondering because I drink them to not lose to much weight, I've got a very high motabalism and I'm diabetic and I've always assumed they were helpful.
Karla Faulkner (13 days ago)
what about vitamin d, some of us are older women that don't go out in the sun.
redbaron297 (15 days ago)
I stand by melatonin for overnight workers, definitely helps.
A Wolfe (16 days ago)
Thank you so much for being gender inclusive when talking about pregnancy. It makes a huge difference in inclusion! ♡
Hans (17 days ago)
i love the fact that he said pregnant people instead of pregnant women
jacob77p (19 days ago)
Seriously!! Pregnant people? PC culture is out of controll!
Vanessa Shantae (19 days ago)
Pregnant people... Because sometimes men get pregnant... But only sometimes.... Most of the time, it's women.
Arjun Dev (20 days ago)
Yeah I disagree with the 5th supplement too, coz you need to get your ass back to road and start jogging. You jog like a mile or more in the evening like just couple a hours before sunset and thats it, you will sleep like a baby in the night.
Nate Bennett (20 days ago)
i don't take melatonin i smoke weed to sleep + lower blood pressure (from thc)+ creatine = great muscle recovery from the gym!
Orome (20 days ago)
What about N-acetylcysteine (NAC)? It is actually used in the emergency setting to prevent hepatic injury in the case of acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdoses.
Maryam Alhaqq (20 days ago)
“We’re just internet people !” 😂
Dusky Racer (21 days ago)
High levels of creatine cannot be obtained though meat and especially cooked meet. This is because you dont need high levels of creatine but it will boost performance. Creatine increases the amount of short term energy your body stores and allows you to have something like a 15% increase in short extraneous activity. Creatine also likes to hold water and will make you muscles seem bigger as creatine is stored in the muscles and does not bloat the rest of the body.
Annika Peterson (24 days ago)
I stumbled upon this video a day after having to quit taking a multivitamin after going to the doctor because it was causing eruptive lingual papilitis (swollen taste buds)
Floydarn' (24 days ago)
Vitamin D yo, it's all you need! If people just realized it's power... 😑🤗🤩
TortiliaXD (25 days ago)
It really drives me crazy how things are written in different colors and in different sizes in these videos. It makes me read it slower because there's so much goin on
# lakewood20 (28 days ago)
One time my friend took creatine before we had swim practice and he was killing it for the first hour or so but soon after he was out of the pool throwing up and cramping
Max Mustermann (28 days ago)
Tried giving my AMD RX480 some antioxidants, didn't improve performance.
Apporve Tyagi (28 days ago)
Is whey protein useless then?
Pi (28 days ago)
those gummy bear vitamins taste good,though
jpyouakim (28 days ago)
You should have covered vitamin D. As a physician we recommend 400 IU of vitamin D to infants until they are 1 years old if they are breast fed. There isn’t enough vitamin D in breast milk for babies (25 IU per liter per the CDC). Vitamin D is important for many things but for babies it is important for their bone health. If they do not get enough their bones may become so weak that they develop rickets. Infants born in the winter and infants with darker skin pigmentation are particularly at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency. There are many others diseases and times in life it is needed such as people with malabsorption or those showing symptoms of depression but are just deficient in vitamin D but just thought that the most obvious vitamins to cover would have been folic acid and vitamin D. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/#h6
mbaxter22 (29 days ago)
So... Creatine, Beet juice, Folic Acid, St. John's Wort and Melatonin. Thanks.
Darran Clements (1 month ago)
Pregnant person? Nutrients from the parent? Oh come on? Be precise, rather than pandering to some fashion about "not offending transexuals" SMH... you also missed zinc supplements... I would consider St John's wort as self medication, not a supplements, anyway
Brian M (1 month ago)
Well I'm deficient in vitamin D and calcium. BUT here's the problem. To get the most out of calcium I need to get d3 which allows it to absorb better. I have an allergy to D. So in turn to get calcium I need to break out in severe rashes to consume. Hmmm.
Ioan Jivan (1 month ago)
Hail big pharma!
Med Otaku (1 month ago)
How is it that Melatonin, a compound excreted by the pineal gland, isn't considered a "drug" by the FDA, but Dimethyl-tryptamine, which is also (reportedly) excreted by the same gland is a classified as a schedule 1 drug by the same regulatory agency?
xXAkiroXx (1 month ago)
I need to take iron supplements but I hate it because it makes my poop green and wet but at least I don’t faint anymore lmao
Azzy Xec (1 month ago)
Omega 3 anyone
Justin Hale (1 month ago)
Where is the research that shows that vitamin D supplementation is more likely to be harmful than helpful?
Lightning (1 month ago)
Was expecting Vitamin D3 somewhere... but it's not even on the list
Jarek D (1 month ago)
It looks like one supplement - I'm sure the best one is missing. Yes Flavon - the most complex supplement is missing here
DaCo Video (1 month ago)
"Talk to a Doctor!" Lol dude, that's a luxury I can't afford. Load me up with vitamin D
David Swanson (1 month ago)
I'm skeptical on a lot of supplements. I've tried protein shakes to gain mass. Diet supplements to shed weight. And none I found worked. However, there are two that are amazing. I have trouble sleeping. I was really skeptical about Melatonin but it actually works. I take 5mg a night. The other is Kratom. I have chronic lower back pain due to surgery removing some damaged discs. And Kratom actually works! I use 1.5grams and the pain is gone for about 5 to 8 hours.
Fabio Zimmerman (1 month ago)
You never mentioned whey protein!
Stadium ARTs (1 month ago)
Pregnant.... People?! Sorry man, but only Women can get Pregnant. 'Pregnant Women'. WTF is going on with people these days.
Fearsome Fawkes (1 month ago)
Stadium ARTs nope. Trans men and gender queer folk with a uterus can get pregnant, not just cis women
HBMNID (1 month ago)
My name is mrbestawesomeguy and I have the functional ACTN-3 gene.
Chris Mills (1 month ago)
Good episode. Helpful. But, Hank! Pregnant "People"? Twice you said that. I think it is still OK to say 'Women', Since like 99.999% of all pregnant 'People', are in fact, women. Show me the other .001%! Now THAT would be interesting. I tease. It's just ' Women'. OK?
sie kreischte (1 month ago)
Well this wasn't helpful
Nicole wood (1 month ago)
Any info on the effectiveness on valerian root?
Quinton Beck (1 month ago)
half the comments are people saying "X should be included" or "Where is X? Why isn't it there?" The whole point of the video is that all of those other things are NOT helpful. It is all hip and cool to take X and Y and Z and multivitamins... but it's all just expensive candy.
AcridDread (1 month ago)
NAC, Boron, Flax Seed Oil, C-60 Oil.
Amy Pola (1 month ago)
Yeah I deal with sleep issues and no more melatonin for me. It's a hormone....and I think at this point that we need to support our hormones rather than mess with them. So I would NOT recommend melatonin. And oh my goodness be careful with St. Johns Wort. SUN SENSITIVITY IS REAL. I experienced it. If you take it, stay out of the bleeping sun. I will never take it again ever ever ever ever ever. and ever. never. When will I take it again? uh, never. Like never. Forever and ever never. lol Just to be clear. ;) I do take plenty of other supplements though and I research a lot about supplements. My list would be, and is, very different. Less synthetic more whole foods is a good rule of thumb. And getting a healthy gut flora via those whole foods is probably the biggest one of all. Though I'm not going to recommend probiotic pills, unless it's soil based. I've also learned that some pathogens are being passed off as a probiotic, as well as candida which is more of a prebiotic. It's supposed to get eaten by the probiotics and stay in small numbers until you are dead, then it overgrows and breaks down your body. Hence the problems with an overgrowth of candida when you are alive. It is NOT a probiotic. But I would recommend soil based probiotics, at least for now. Beet juice isn't a supplement, that is a whole food. I wouldn't consider that a supplement. Vegetables aren't supplements....they are actual food.
Bart Misiewicz (1 month ago)
Pineal Gland mentioned!?
SubZero (1 month ago)
I thought antioxidants were a marketing scam from the homeopathy industry
Melinda Green (1 month ago)
Want antioxidants? Nothing you're likely to find will come even close to having as much as you'll get from a single cup of coffee.
Dan Tower (1 month ago)
St Johns Wart has fewer side effects, aside from this long list of side effects. /s Another problem is that with these herbals you have no idea really what you're getting and at what concentration.
hawke allen (1 month ago)
Cautionary words and solutions: 1-Creatine has been shown to increase pattern baldness symptoms. Try l-citrulline as it has similar positive effects. It is converted to l-arginine in the liver and is preferred as it is more of an even distribution over time where as pure l-arginine would cause a spike of it in the blood, followed by a complete loss. 4-try folate instead of folic acid, folate is the naturally occurring while folic acid is made in a lab and can cause adverse side effects, they are the same thing otherwise. 5- Melatonin can become something we rely on and struggle with withdraws to come off of. Try L-tryptophan, this is what the pineal gland uses to turn into all the good stuff, like melatonin, serotonin, dmt, etc. This would be preferred as this is the precursor so the body is still required to have metobalic function to create the stuff, so it does not become something we rely on, it's more like food. Otherwise I fully agree!
Evan102030 (1 month ago)
I can't believe you left out omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin D. These are probably the ones that almost everyone could benefit from.
Masum Khan (1 month ago)
Lol to that disclaimer
Mike Page (1 month ago)
No Vitamin D??
Mike Kloppel (1 month ago)
Has it gotten to the point now where I need to question if a science channel on YouTube refers to women who are pregnant as people (duh, yeah they are) because they dont want to offend pregnant men or gender neutral people? It feels like I do tbh. It could have been harmless, but man...if it weren't. It would show just how low the current state of intellectualism had gotten.
Kael Games (1 month ago)
Good thing to note with St. John’s wort is its dangerous for those that are actually bipolar.
Sarah S (1 month ago)
I didn't take vitamins for most of my life. Recently I started taking a quality multi and I feel a lot better. I think that they are helpful especially if your diet isn't great and you are under a lot of stress (which is most of us).
The only two things I take would be D3 and B12 because those are not found in food.
Aaron Wade (1 month ago)
Excellent video. I wish the internet was always good.
shadfurman (1 month ago)
There's a LOT of other vitamins that help, at the good evidence to some supplementation being really good. I agree diet should be the first change. But vitamin k2, which very few people get from their diet anymore, signals calcium and other mineral delivery and can help with osteoporosis and prevent kidney stones. Vitamin D may be good if you like in a climate with less sun than your ancestors evolved in, also of note, many of our ancestors haven't been wearing many clothes for long. Magnesium is central to an absurd number of processes and it's very safe, unless you take a lot and plan on meeting with your boss, as it can make you poop without your consent in fairly moderate doses. Folic acid also is not a natural vitamin. I high percentage of people have difficulty processing folic acid into the folate our bodies use and can lead to worse.health problems in the long run. There are a few different forms of natural folate, but the most common one is methyl folate. Doctors also aren't really very good at detecting deficiencies, often assuming the level of deficiency is at the level when you notice adverse physical effects. Asside from the fact that people are highly variable and that level may be higher, most supplements are optimal at a much higher level. There are also many safe vitamins, that you basically cannot overdose on in any resonable respect. If we're including herbals, the list is longer. Everyone can think of a few herbs that are quite effective... At least at something. 😉 However, there are also far more nutritional requirements that aren't recognized as necessary that are near necessary for most people to achieve optimal health. If eating a poor diet, taking vitamins of any kind is not a good fix. The best thing a person can do aside from some pretty advanced and specific testing, is too eat a whole food nutrient dense diet. While I agree most multivitamins are probably neutral to bad, there are MANY vitamins a person can safely take and will likely benefit from. Part of our problem in science is the insistence on variable isolation, and many vitamins aren't very effective, or are bad, if taken in isolation. When taken with other specific supplements, some vitamins are enormously beneficial. (I.e. vitamin d, magnesium, and vitamin k/k2)
youddc (1 month ago)
You guys should stay away from health topics. Leave it to the pros. And stop spreading bs propaganda
Nathaniel Jacobs (1 month ago)
You need folate not folic acid
Kay Kay (1 month ago)
I'm surprised that Magnesium didn't make the list as 80% of Adults have been found to be hypomagnesemic and the body doesn't keep reserves of it (must be replenished everyday). Plus, Vitamin D depletes the body of Magnesium. So, spending time in the sun would further deplete the mineral. There are some pretty serious symptoms related to a magnesium deficiency.
Angela Lott (1 month ago)
No Vitamin D for people who live in the north and don't get alot of sun, huh? I'm curious to know how much science is behind this.
André Levy (1 month ago)
"pregnant _people_ "?? Oh, c'mon!. .
Brandon Lester (1 month ago)
Soo would saint johns worth be considered an SSRI or an MAOI???? Or would it fall under another classification?
Oscar Fernando Perez (1 month ago)
Hey, what about zinc??
Eric Youngberg (1 month ago)
St. John’s Wort (or weed/flower) did nothing to help my loved one, but SAM-e (another supplement) completely changed her life! Better than any of the several antidepressants she was prescribed over the years, it has consistently helped her in so many ways. We ran out a couple of times, and she became very depressed within a few days, but when I bought more (available at any drugstore) she was herself again within about a half hour. This is how we know it works. You could do an entire YouTube segment on SAM-e. We have discovered almost NO medical doctors know anything about it, so you must research on your own. It has been prescribed for years in Europe (socialized medicine) but is OTC here in the states.
Ayumu Iguchi (1 month ago)
Are you interested in buying supplements that actually work? Visit my website dvrichard.usana.com
Adam Johns (1 month ago)
Beet juice beet juice beet juice Like if you understand
Santa Purena (1 month ago)
The supplements that work tend to be prescribed by real doctors and those doctors make their conclusions based on blood tests.
Kai DuBois (1 month ago)
I could've sworn he said that beets give us nitrous oxide. Beets=NOS
Zappyguy111 (1 month ago)
Beetroot? Welcome to Australia's favourate burger topping. Certainly explains a lot.
Sherri Asenova (1 month ago)
What about vitamin d3
Adam Bier (1 month ago)
Folic acid is the artificial version of folate and should not be misconstrued for the same exact thing. Folic acid is close but it’s not as affective, takes longer to become affective and can prevent folate from being used by your body. Folic acid is a lot better than nothing and does the job in many cases with little to no risk but folate is available and if you are deficient, you might as well seek out the better alternative. I personally weed out any products that contain folic acid because my folate levels are low (genetic defect) and I’m already taking folate which does a more efficient job.
Nastazio Romanos (1 month ago)
Melatonin is a hormone produced by the human body in the presence of the perception of daylight. The hormone is not produced instantly before we fall asleep but rather from the time we open the curtains assuming that it's a bright day outside. Sleep is the end result of an accumulation of melatonin throughout the day. In the absence of daylight, melatonin is not produced.
LoLugon (1 month ago)
Hank reveal the supplement that keeps you from ageing for all these past years
Angelika Hemker (1 month ago)
Great!
Kourosh Kourison (1 month ago)
3:22 AMD is bad for your eyes switch to invidia
64standardtrickyness (1 month ago)
how much beet root powder is the recommended dosage?
64standardtrickyness (1 month ago)
also is it recommended to take with food or without?
Kyber Knight (1 month ago)
Have you done research on safflower oil as a supplement?
Renehta Tibet (1 month ago)
I love that you consistently use the term "pregnant people."
ุุ ุ (1 month ago)
*might*
P H (1 month ago)
Oops, didn't see your sources! Well double dipping on them.
P H (1 month ago)
He is right, an improved diet is better than taking supplements, each individual is different or same same but different and your body may require something different than mine--broadly speaking. Also, your body may respond differently to different foods, vitamins and minerals than mine does. It's important to ask your doctor to "test" your blood to determine the best approach to your diet or supplements. I've included this link with accurate information about supplements for your own research. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/ExerciseAndAthleticPerformance-HealthProfessional/#h6
Amy Dentata (1 month ago)
If you have a chronic illness, you aren't "most people." Including before the illness is diagnosed! I methodically tried a few supplements and found ones that make a difference. Then I got my diagnosis and found they were supplements often recommended for my condition. Listening to your body can work, if you know how to read up and also check your own biases. Also "detoxes" are always BS.
St. Haborym (1 month ago)
Creatine, I had a friend who was bed ridden for a long period of time due to health issues, said they put on a ton of muscle after taking it and doing some weight lifting.
St. Haborym (1 month ago)
"Don't listen to us" So should we not listen to you telling us to not listen to you then?
comexxx (1 month ago)
No mention of vitamin D?
v0ffka1 (1 month ago)
"Pregnant people" ... could just have sad "pregnant women". I am not under any circumstances implying, that women are not people of course, they are people for sure :)

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