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Game Theory: The Science of Decision-Making

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With up to ten years in prison at stake, will Wanda rat Fred out? Game theory is looking at human interactions through the lens of mathematics. Hosted by: Hank Green ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Kevin Bealer, Justin Lentz, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Patrick Merrithew, Accalia Elementia, Fatima Iqbal, Benny, Kyle Anderson, Mike Frayn, Tim Curwick, Will and Sonja Marple, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Kathy Philip, Patrick D. Ashmore, Thomas J., charles george, and Bader AlGhamdi. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/microeconomics/nash-equilibrium-tutorial http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/general/whatis.htm http://assets.cambridge.org/97805213/61774/sample/9780521361774ws.pdf https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcLZMYPdpH4 http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-20181-5_1 http://www.gametheory.net/dictionary/Game.html Image Links: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Forbes_Nash_Jr.
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Text Comments (1846)
FishLip (6 days ago)
"Did you interact with anyone today?" ha... ha...
Hawk Eye (7 days ago)
I'm expecting to see how Nash equation will be applied to decision making.
Hawk Eye (7 days ago)
Well I think that there is no number in this math theory.
Eric Sageser (8 days ago)
Wanda will spend less time in jail because she's a women as men spend 64% more time in prison for comparable crimes.
bza069 (8 days ago)
Nash DOES NOT look like Russel Crowe.... Hollywood is shite
Martin Vegter (9 days ago)
You are wrong! Game theory was pioneered by John von Neumann, not John Nash
Tadas Kuzminskas (10 days ago)
I wan't to make this one clear for me... If i make 10 and my friend makes 20 our total production value seperatly is 30. So shloud'nt the 10 additional ones that we made while working together be devided by 3, since in my friends favor, since his production value is higher?
Lord Itachi (12 days ago)
The best part is u don't need to know math to understand this
malo dai (14 days ago)
shreya (16 days ago)
The cookie math doesn't seem fair. Their efficiencies are in the ratio 2:1, should't the profit be divided in the same ratio?
siphamandla kumalo (17 days ago)
i hate Game Theory ,i've been backstabbed through it
Joao Victor Coelho (17 days ago)
if both of them choose to confess, aren't they cooperating?
TheaDragonSpirit (23 days ago)
Look at the world as the game, rather than looking at each other as the game. We want to beat the earth game and have a better world. Not take advantage of each other.
TheaDragonSpirit (23 days ago)
8:45 - this is flawed if he worked on his own he made 30 cookies in the same about of working with someone he made 40 cookies. So two of them working alone could of made 60 cookies, but together they made 40. So what would of been better is if he taught his friend how to make cookies, then they split the profit from working together. See how that works better. If instead of trying to keep control of the recipe he trusts his friend. Then he has a chance of greater profit. Being smart is not trying to hold the other person back in order to keep an advantage. If you're constantly worried about someone screwing you over or doing better than you, then that shows a horrible flaw in the education system, because working together and trusting people is always better. Not everyone can do one job that is also how this is flawed. On large scale it's always better to not try get an advantage over other people.
TheaDragonSpirit (23 days ago)
This is a bad strategy. This implies doing something wrong is right. The best solution is to work out a way in which both parties win. By confession they are making a correct decision and so should be rewarded for doing that. Because if one loses out and gets ten years, he probably will cut your life short when he gets out. Giving you a total of 10 years or so to live or being in a constant state of fear. The best solution is to workout how to get along. It's not how to screw each other over. If your solution is to screw someone over, than they don't grow as a person and so they could do something like build the internet and make life better for all. If you keep people stupid, and give yourself the advantage you run the risk of losing out massively. The best solution is always to work out how everyone in the situation can gain. So instead of turning them against each other you say. Will both give you less time if you both confess. But if only one confesses then you both get a longer life sentence. In which both now want to confess, because nothing bad happens to the other person. No one is screwed over.
Btec Lanyard (24 days ago)
why is everything here about the youtube channel game theory and not Poseidon from prison break season 5??
Hudoyo Danumurti (24 days ago)
Dude, you're wrong..lol
kahan gadhiya (26 days ago)
Any video to find chapley value to support coalition with more then two players(in cooperative situation)
Emilton Patrick (26 days ago)
Best book for game theory
HardDie (27 days ago)
Yes, but Fred gets whacked (killed) on the streets within a year. Criminals don't like snitches I hear. Especially in prision, which if he is a real criminal, he would end up again some day.
Michael Ryan (29 days ago)
the best poker players are the ones who take nash equilibrium when its the only and best option, but can spot the no confess point and confess points at the same time and more often.
broken core (1 month ago)
But that's just a theory a game theory!! Props to matt pat
Mighty Goddragon (1 month ago)
game theory? like matpat is here?
Wild Bore (1 month ago)
0:48 Well... no
DerpTQ (1 month ago)
I would just do 50/50 on the cookie money
WeTube (1 month ago)
One Love
Bishops_and_Bones (1 month ago)
8:32 why wouldn't it be giving your friend credit for 7.5 extra and you 2.5 extra; so 27.50 and 12.50 respectively?
Marcelo Temer (1 month ago)
Socialism and PC were included in your concept of Game Theory! There are many supportive attitudes regarding "people who can't contribute" and this has nothing to do with game theory.
rJeremy Rodriguez (1 month ago)
Game theory is the best channel
Red Blue Green (1 month ago)
thank you!!!! i really learned a lot from your video, ill suscribe right *click* now... do you recomend any book to continue studiyng this???
Ankit Kumar (1 month ago)
How about they divide the money by counting how much cookies an individual person made ?
hyqhyp (1 month ago)
Game theory began with Von Neumann not Nash. And please desist from inserting hippy politics into mathematics. That there may be reasons for paying non performers isn't a core idea of GT, your emphases here reflects your personal political preference. Otherwise you should also mention that it may also be a very bad idea as it incentivizes non-performance and can lead to mooching.
Hahaha Yeah (2 months ago)
Hi, I'm a researcher in Human-computer Interaction, and I'm currently working on an online educational video platform project. I'm wondering whether I could use your videos in my lab experiments, and whether it is possible for you as the content creator to summarize your video content into a list of topics covered in the video? Thanks a lot in advance. You can contact me by email: minli.apply2015@gmail.com.
TheWolfboy180 (2 months ago)
0:50 Well, you’ll be disappointed by my answer
A man (2 months ago)
so good
LennyThroughParadise (2 months ago)
Cool I play poker but never heard about the `Shapley value. Seems great if you want to have a business with employees working for you. Thanks for the new insights!
Cookies riddle has actually not sufficient incomng data. We know what my and my friend's separate productivity is, but our productivity in a streamline model is not given. We can solve it the way shown in the video only if we cook separately
ncooty (2 months ago)
@8:55 Game theory doesn't tell you how to be fair. I assume an economist wrote a line that absurd. Fairness is a perception (about which there are decades of research), and this approach barely skims the surface of only one facet of perceptions of fairness.
Jeffrey Weber (2 months ago)
I have to tell you, the PD is a cooperative game. The game is variable-sum, not zero-sum; everyone benifits from cooperation.
Khan tulu (2 months ago)
N F (2 months ago)
It sounds like the Kyoto protocol was aiming for the Shapley equilibrium, but ended up in a prisoner's dilemma lol. Thanks for the video, very clear and concise.
K L (2 months ago)
David Barkowitz (2 months ago)
Game theory...invented by captain obvious.
Aalap D (2 months ago)
This was beautiful.
Emad Sufi (3 months ago)
Nash?? "The mathematical theory of games was invented by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern (1944)" https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/game-theory/
David Chen (3 months ago)
I would’ve loved it if they had matpat host this episode
Emon bhuiyan (3 months ago)
What if Salad cost more than Steak? do I still pay more?
Pranav Limaye (3 months ago)
angelyiu629 (3 months ago)
My best matpat imatetion
PiCABLESKY (3 months ago)
im curious what kind if game si taxation besides THEFT..please make scientific explanation
Ciro Guerra-Lara (3 months ago)
Actually cooperative games exist when there is an authority that can enforce contracts effectively, thus enforcing cooperative strategies. In non cooperative games there is no effective authority that enforces contracts, thus coalitions exist only as far as they are convenient or enforcible by the players themselves. You are confusing concepts of cooperative games with zero sum games. In zero sum games what you win was lost by another player. In non zero sum games you have to consider the creation and destruction of value within tne game. Different concepts.
NKN (3 months ago)
who else thought that this episode is about MatPat's Game Theory
Aaditya Swongamikha (3 months ago)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHH3Jc6esRk&t=72s check out my new video and please like and subscribe... It's about dark matter
6vorn9 (3 months ago)
What's going on under that shirt?
Jenniline Lambrento (3 months ago)
wheres matpat? and wheres the game theory outro
rey dio (3 months ago)
I'm an Industrial Engineering Student, and we game theory for breakfast, hahah Alteast for the finals last sem lol :-D
CalculatinGenius (3 months ago)
Welcome, to GAME THEROY
TheHiddenKobster 05 (3 months ago)
But hey, it’s just a theory A GAME theory! Thanks for watching! Now it’s time for... SUPER AMAZING END CARD TOURNAMENT
Juliano Ghaly (4 months ago)
or MatPat
Polaris Seven (4 months ago)
Thanks for the elegant explanation. It's a brilliant theory formulated by a beautiful mind.
Shastha Liyanage (4 months ago)
Good Stuff !
Tom Rauhe (4 months ago)
By that logic, you cannot play a game by yourself. But there are tons of games that make you play against a "system". Most computer games are, for starters, and most cooperative games can be played by yourself
Submarine in the Sky (4 months ago)
this isn't what i thought it was
Jim Jr44 (4 months ago)
So how does that work with the US and the UN?
KappaScopeZZ (4 months ago)
Being smart is not only caring about yourself
L D (4 months ago)
Hmm Makes me think of in modern society of the legal side of divorce vs cost of divorce and risk rewards....
Noyz Gaming (5 months ago)
What if there were a co-op-etition game, where 2 coelitions compete.
Noyz Gaming (5 months ago)
But hey! Thats just a theory A GAME theory, thanks for watching!
Levi Stoermer (5 months ago)
Hello internet! Welcome to:
The Twilight Phoenix (5 months ago)
What about film theory? It's a good YouTube show too!
crimfan (5 months ago)
Game theory is older than John Nash. The book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Morgenstern is considered the foundational text, but of course it was written about before them. The first edition of their book was published in 1944. Here's the Amazon link: https://www.amazon.com/Economic-Behavior-Princeton-Classic-Editions/dp/0691130612
GhoulcallerGisa (5 months ago)
ngl i thought this was an actual game theory video
coastermania17 (5 months ago)
that example reminds me of the game show Friend or Foe. two players have acquired a certain amount of money based on their performance in the game. Then at the end they make a secret decision. If they both choose the Friend option, then they split the winnings 50/50. If one chooses Friend and the other chooses Foe, then the person who chose Foe gets all the winnings and the other person leaves with nothing. If both people choose Foe, they both leave with nothing
Joshua Gillard (5 months ago)
Awesome, that was very informative! Thank you much. I wonder what things will be like when people this smart become lawmakers. Just dreaming.. :)
Chad Johnson (5 months ago)
Is this guy POGO all grown up? I havnt watchedin years... but i sear its pogobot
DylanYT (5 months ago)
thats just a theory! A GAME THEORY!!
uncle featherpimp (5 months ago)
Brexit anyone?
Gibran A (5 months ago)
I thought this was a matpat video
thewalrusclown (5 months ago)
ANNNNNND Matpat wasn't a guest star in this BECASUUUUUUUSE?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?
Ron Borneo (5 months ago)
I was expecting to see mini-max, alpha-beta pruning, iterative deepening, etc.
T.J. Payeur (5 months ago)
Interesting but..the first thing you learn in Poli-Sci.."One can not count on people acting in their own rational best self-interest."
Benjamin Koga-Winn (2 months ago)
T.J. Payeur Doesn't matter since utils and utility in general can represent perceived value or subjective value as well as actual or actionable value. Game theory works on ordinal value calculations not cardinal values per se.
TheDridri600 (5 months ago)
les L1 PS est-ce que vous êtes làààà
Roland Gschiel (5 months ago)
Stupid video, game theory explains nothing. Its just stupid
Phosphorescent (5 months ago)
but hey, that's JUST a theory! A GAME THEORY!
Sir Artorias (5 months ago)
I was hoping someone would reference the seminal Roots album Game Theory. It is seriously great.
deadlypandaghost (5 months ago)
Any recommendations for a good game theory channel? It always pops up with video game channels when I search
Fazz Gaplant (5 months ago)
MatPat flagged this video
TETRISBOY (6 months ago)
That's just a theory! A GAME THEORY!!! lol
Sandro Bomio (6 months ago)
I was interested in the spirit of the time and the people's spirit who created that theory. Sort of disappointed.
Purple Toast (6 months ago)
But that just a theory...A Game Theory!
Boo Bear (6 months ago)
but why is it called "game" theory?
Damian warrick (6 months ago)
Clap and a half everybody!
Sanjay Kumar (6 months ago)
Dermot Rooney (6 months ago)
Thomas D. Productions (6 months ago)
Mr.Wetdream (6 months ago)
When I think of coalition I think of saw 5. The ironically they all worked against each other, I would like to think the movie held a mirror up to society.
Charles Darwin (6 months ago)
how many years has the two employees had these skills. have both employees been reskilles during their careers. if someone with ten years in the field having reskilled is applying for a job with someone just out of college in employing the ten year expierencd guy on a trial basis and taking one the college kid until the project is complete and letting go the more expierenced (and more expensive) party while retaining the college kid. economics!
Celine Strauss (6 months ago)
we need to consider human error as well, too much systemic functions in society are based on traditional and limited knowledge and perspectives
Ed Ryan (6 months ago)
392 don’t like game theory.
Randal DaVandal (6 months ago)
In a tournament with points instead of jail sentences where you get more points for cooperating, you should choose to cooperate until the other guy starting betraying you

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