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Game Theory: The Science of Decision-Making

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With up to ten years in prison at stake, will Wanda rat Fred out? Game theory is looking at human interactions through the lens of mathematics. Hosted by: Hank Green ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Kevin Bealer, Justin Lentz, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Patrick Merrithew, Accalia Elementia, Fatima Iqbal, Benny, Kyle Anderson, Mike Frayn, Tim Curwick, Will and Sonja Marple, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Kathy Philip, Patrick D. Ashmore, Thomas J., charles george, and Bader AlGhamdi. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/microeconomics/nash-equilibrium-tutorial http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/general/whatis.htm http://assets.cambridge.org/97805213/61774/sample/9780521361774ws.pdf https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcLZMYPdpH4 http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-20181-5_1 http://www.gametheory.net/dictionary/Game.html Image Links: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Forbes_Nash_Jr.
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Text Comments (1919)
Steven Pham (1 day ago)
Fred might get them cheeks busted in for snitchin tho. So do 10 years or 5 yrs but get cheeks busted every night for snitchin'? I'll take the 10! Wat they don't tell you is u prolly get patrol after 2 or 3 lol.
shubham sakarwal (6 days ago)
I guess this was portrayed in the movie dark knight ( batman vs joker) in the ferry bomb scene.
jithin kg (8 days ago)
A beautiful mind😊
koty gonzo (11 days ago)
Click bat/coattail riding ?
NabNax (15 days ago)
But But But, alright lets have another. What happened in Wanda story?
I would have divided the cookies like this 26.66 vs 13.333 because the benefit of joint production should be a multiplier for each party's production involvement. And to make it obvious if I produce 1 cookie and join the merry bunch I will gain ~4 cookies and the guy with 20 cookies work Cappacity will ask himself "Is this Co-op worth it"?
kermit the frog (15 days ago)
Johnnybgood (16 days ago)
Arnold Hay (17 days ago)
Douche bro science
Jose Mendoza (18 days ago)
MatPat invented Game Theory !!! 😂
Florian Biermann (22 days ago)
The author of this gets lots of stuff wrong. If one wants to record such a video, one should know something on the subject matter.
DayumAli (29 days ago)
0:50 : - Like, did you interact with anyone today? - Me: ...... - Well you can probably..
topflight408 (1 month ago)
Did anyone else think this was about the channel Game Theory?
cetar bahana (1 month ago)
Best video
Cristian Black (1 month ago)
Keever Czlapinski (1 month ago)
Aaron say's check it out http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnnjR6y-QNk … now TALK about grooming Aaron say's U 2 can go to court, report being and alway's IT"S easy to embrace, hate rage and TURN ON everything you KNOW God Oprah I struggle with LOVE, POWER and MYSELF www.thinkingwhiledrinking.org
Joseph V (1 month ago)
SciShow could be much better if every video is not rushed
Keever Czlapinski (1 month ago)
Aaron say's check it out http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnnjR6y-QNk … now TALK about grooming Aaron say's U 2 can go to court, report being and alway's IT"S easy to embrace, hate rage and TURN ON everything you KNOW God Oprah I struggle with LOVE, POWER and MYSELF www.thinkingwhiledrinking.org
Keever Czlapinski (1 month ago)
Aaron say's check it out http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnnjR6y-QNk … now TALK about grooming Aaron say's U 2 can go to court, report being and alway's IT"S easy to embrace, hate rage and TURN ON everything you KNOW God Oprah I struggle with LOVE, POWER and MYSELF www.thinkingwhiledrinking.org
Omiad Khan (1 month ago)
Chess is father of Phelosophy .
Izzy Explains (1 month ago)
This is the video you get when someone thinks a subject is cool and wants to make a video about it but doesn’t actually no anything about the subject. I’m fine with that but when the video acts very know-it-all and obnoxious and makes a huge mistake confusing strictly dominant strategies with Nash Equilibrium (all strictly dominant strategies are NE but not all NE are strictly dominant strategies) that kind of annoys me.
Amber Mayo (1 month ago)
That prisoner's dilemma sounds like a great way to get false confessions.
Yash Nagalgave (1 month ago)
Hamza Jaheen (1 month ago)
I opened this video expecting MatPat in the video.
Diogenes of Sinope (1 month ago)
Or you could kill Fred.
BatmanJesus 4444 (1 month ago)
That's just a theory
Remy B (1 month ago)
The prisoners dilemma is faulty in that in weights jail terms in merely years served. Being convicted of a felony carries lifelong repercussions even after the years served. The 10/0 or 0/10 outcomes are the best to aim for... where at least one of the culprits doesn't endure lifelong penalties. It also doesn't factor in the snitch aspect. There is some number of stitches that are on the table as well.
John Morse (1 month ago)
The problem with this is it supposes a one time interaction. It does not recognize that "Wanda" and "Fred" will likely interact a number of times. Each of them knowing that betrayal will poison any and all potential future interactions and that betrayal will instill in the other, a desire for ten years of payback!
Sebastian Fourez (1 month ago)
Soooo... Essentially the second one is just dividing the profit...
Luiz Henrique Morais (1 month ago)
thank you!
Strawman Account (1 month ago)
This is game theory?!?!!? I thought game theory had to do with play video games or maybe even classical games like baseball or football.
flumpnut (1 month ago)
But that’s just a theory... A GAME THEORY!
weathermitimbers (1 month ago)
Can we please drop the pretense that there's a legitimate way to stop climate change?
terry ferguson (1 month ago)
Science is largely sorcery and witchcraft,carried out by demons that inhabit people.NOT people with aspergers syndrome.
netsquire (1 month ago)
I thought I would see MatPat 😢
The 47 Ronin (1 month ago)
Michael Schofield lol
Ibap (1 month ago)
but hey thats a theory a game therory now go away
bausHuck (1 month ago)
Not sure if it's just me, but I could not help notice that shirt is a bit tight around the belly. Similar problem to what I experience. Lol. Good informative video though!
simões ferreira (2 months ago)
Where to study that?
JX VX (2 months ago)
Still the worst theory in mathematics
Brad (2 months ago)
Does it apply to trade agreements ?
TheNumber1 Panda (2 months ago)
I thought MattPatt was going to be in this video.
Raul Jacobo III (2 months ago)
I have a question. Say there are two basketball teams and they play against each other, Team A and Team B. The relationship between Team A and Team B is Non-Cooperative. Now would the relationship within Team A be a cooperative game as everyone in Team A is aiming towards the goal of winning?
Patrick Skramstad (2 months ago)
In the real world many contribute and get very little or nothing
Max R (2 months ago)
Ive be running this in my head to make situations work for me without even realising it was a thing.
dyonesios (2 months ago)
So then game theory isn't the science of decision making, as it's prescriptive rather than empirical, it's the logic behind decision strategy. It's only predictive to the extent players are good strategists, aka share the same values, act rationally, and have the same information.
I Get Buckets (2 months ago)
In the dearest moments, I will never choose game theory over virtue.
Xoxo 101 (2 months ago)
So many game theory fans XD
ice la honk (2 months ago)
isn't this a british game show? steal or split?
SkillGame (2 months ago)
I've studied a lot of game theory and this is one of the best introductions I've seen to these game types. One small thing, a Nash Equilibrium is achieved when no player can improve their result by changing strategy. As the brief annotation mentioned, you described a Dominant strategy. Curious viewers should look into optimal strategy for Prisoner's Dilemma in an iterated game (ie. multiple rounds of the same decision). It may be the best mathematical model available for the axiom "It doesn't matter if you win or lose, it's how you play the game."
Ice Gecko (2 months ago)
Munkhbayar Rinchin (2 months ago)
In the original story the prisoners rat each other not confess. Confession does not reduce your sentencing to zero. It is not counterintuitive and not helpful to explain this beautiful dilemma
Roy Matthijssen (2 months ago)
Its extremely annoying when vloggers suffocate your brains with a waterfall of text by cutting out the pause moments. Please respect your public and give them a break to process it.
Uche Philips (2 months ago)
Hmmm.... Nash also said that that we'd have a better economy if we think of the betterment of another, so the best economy here would be 2/2, don't confess... I got that from the movie though.
Manoj Kumar (2 months ago)
fnoof MusicOfficial (2 months ago)
Seeker (2 months ago)
This was covered in the last chapter of “Algorithms to Live By” by Tom Griffiths and Brian Christian
Seth Carter (2 months ago)
When he asked "Did you interact with anyone today?" I felt that.
Aleksandar Filipovic (2 months ago)
Awesome video! Very informative. I heard of examples you listed, but never knew they fall into the scope of game theory, though I've heard of the concept several times. Well, now I finally know..
Jevesh Chauhan (2 months ago)
Gajab samjhaya bhancha
Emmett Miller (2 months ago)
0:24 But I Thought Game Theory Was Made By Mat Pat......
Fav Club (2 months ago)
I Need More Workers
simba Matutu (3 months ago)
cant follow
Ron Sutton (3 months ago)
Interesting how you mentioned stopping climate change ..as if we could ever do such a thing. Humans are arrogant
Ron Sutton (2 months ago)
Chacho B I'm sorry, did I talk about anything you just mentioned?
Abel Becerra (2 months ago)
Ron Sutton climate changes with or without humans. Antarctic ice core samples prove this. While yes, we do pollute the planet which is a problem, humans are not the sole reason for "climate change". Those in power(elitist) know this, and what solution do they offer? Carbon TAXING the world, which they say is for "$topping" "¢limat€ ¢hang€" lmao. The only "$topping" that will be done will be "$topping" by the bank to deposit all that cash from feeble minded fools.
Ayam Mee (3 months ago)
Man idk mat pat is super important that scientist use him. Well his channel.
Guerrilla Mobile Games (3 months ago)
Please make a Crash Course Game Theory!!!
Averyofthemain (3 months ago)
I like how he mangled the shapley to justify welfare and maternity leave which is not justified under game theory, that's why I hate the green brothers, they have no integrity.
OlymPigs2010 (3 months ago)
The logic,economics and accountability of Game Theory actually..doesn't apply at all or in any way to "Crooked Game Theory" which of course is the US Govt's enigmatic version of...Game Theory!
CyborgCreeper Playz (3 months ago)
Minus ZeRo Degrees (3 months ago)
Well that's why you try to avoid getting yourself in a bad situation in the first place. In mean the jail thing they were both stealing and damaging someone else's wellbeing in the security of their life they deserve each other.
Amish Cowboy (3 months ago)
louis willems (3 months ago)
strength actual village reader tournament favorite adoption ceiling appointment cold
OliBint (3 months ago)
I would donate something via Patreon, but, well....... game theory.
Ankit Kandpal (3 months ago)
So, basically co-operative game theory is like weighted average.
FishLip (4 months ago)
"Did you interact with anyone today?" ha... ha...
Hawk Eye (4 months ago)
I'm expecting to see how Nash equation will be applied to decision making.
Hawk Eye (4 months ago)
Well I think that there is no number in this math theory.
Eric Sageser (4 months ago)
Wanda will spend less time in jail because she's a women as men spend 64% more time in prison for comparable crimes.
bza069 (4 months ago)
Nash DOES NOT look like Russel Crowe.... Hollywood is shite
Martin Vegter (4 months ago)
You are wrong! Game theory was pioneered by John von Neumann, not John Nash
Tadas Kuzminskas (4 months ago)
I wan't to make this one clear for me... If i make 10 and my friend makes 20 our total production value seperatly is 30. So shloud'nt the 10 additional ones that we made while working together be devided by 3, since in my friends favor, since his production value is higher?
Lord Itachi (4 months ago)
The best part is u don't need to know math to understand this
shreya (4 months ago)
The cookie math doesn't seem fair. Their efficiencies are in the ratio 2:1, should't the profit be divided in the same ratio?
siphamandla kumalo (4 months ago)
i hate Game Theory ,i've been backstabbed through it
Joao Victor Coelho (4 months ago)
if both of them choose to confess, aren't they cooperating?
TheaDragonSpirit (4 months ago)
Look at the world as the game, rather than looking at each other as the game. We want to beat the earth game and have a better world. Not take advantage of each other.
TheaDragonSpirit (4 months ago)
8:45 - this is flawed if he worked on his own he made 30 cookies in the same about of working with someone he made 40 cookies. So two of them working alone could of made 60 cookies, but together they made 40. So what would of been better is if he taught his friend how to make cookies, then they split the profit from working together. See how that works better. If instead of trying to keep control of the recipe he trusts his friend. Then he has a chance of greater profit. Being smart is not trying to hold the other person back in order to keep an advantage. If you're constantly worried about someone screwing you over or doing better than you, then that shows a horrible flaw in the education system, because working together and trusting people is always better. Not everyone can do one job that is also how this is flawed. On large scale it's always better to not try get an advantage over other people.
TheaDragonSpirit (4 months ago)
This is a bad strategy. This implies doing something wrong is right. The best solution is to work out a way in which both parties win. By confession they are making a correct decision and so should be rewarded for doing that. Because if one loses out and gets ten years, he probably will cut your life short when he gets out. Giving you a total of 10 years or so to live or being in a constant state of fear. The best solution is to workout how to get along. It's not how to screw each other over. If your solution is to screw someone over, than they don't grow as a person and so they could do something like build the internet and make life better for all. If you keep people stupid, and give yourself the advantage you run the risk of losing out massively. The best solution is always to work out how everyone in the situation can gain. So instead of turning them against each other you say. Will both give you less time if you both confess. But if only one confesses then you both get a longer life sentence. In which both now want to confess, because nothing bad happens to the other person. No one is screwed over.
Ghufrxn (4 months ago)
why is everything here about the youtube channel game theory and not Poseidon from prison break season 5??
John Tremonti (4 months ago)
Dude, you're wrong..lol
kahan gadhiya (4 months ago)
Any video to find chapley value to support coalition with more then two players(in cooperative situation)
Emilton Patrick (4 months ago)
Best book for game theory
HardDie (4 months ago)
Yes, but Fred gets whacked (killed) on the streets within a year. Criminals don't like snitches I hear. Especially in prision, which if he is a real criminal, he would end up again some day.
Michael Ryan (4 months ago)
the best poker players are the ones who take nash equilibrium when its the only and best option, but can spot the no confess point and confess points at the same time and more often.
broken core (4 months ago)
But that's just a theory a game theory!! Props to matt pat
Mighty Goddragon (4 months ago)
game theory? like matpat is here?
Wild Bore (5 months ago)
0:48 Well... no
DerpTQ (5 months ago)
I would just do 50/50 on the cookie money
WeTube (5 months ago)
One Love

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