This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:03:25 1 Etymology
00:06:03 2 History
00:06:11 2.1 Early and medieval history
00:10:09 2.2 Foundation and early modern history
00:14:53 2.3 Later modern and contemporary history
00:20:51 3 Geography
00:24:47 3.1 Climate
00:27:06 4 Demographics
00:31:32 5 Languages
00:32:40 6 Civic administration
00:37:15 6.1 Pollution control
00:38:27 6.2 Slums
00:39:28 6.3 Waste management
00:40:21 7 Economy
00:44:25 8 Transport
00:44:34 8.1 Air
00:45:36 8.2 Rail
00:47:41 8.3 Road
00:50:06 9 Culture
00:52:35 9.1 Art and literature
00:53:51 9.2 Indian Cartoon Gallery
00:54:33 9.3 Theatre, music, and dance
00:57:09 10 Education
00:57:18 10.1 Schools
00:59:50 10.2 Universities
01:02:57 11 Media
01:06:42 12 Sports
01:09:22 13 Sister cities
01:09:50 14 See also
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Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E
"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think."
Bangalore (), officially known as Bengaluru ([ˈbeŋɡəɭuːɾu] (listen)), is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India. It is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, which is the highest among India's major cities.A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas, the Cholas and the Hoysalas, ruled the present region of Bangalore until in 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bangalore. In 1638, the Marāthās conquered and ruled Bangalore for almost 50 years, after which the Mughals captured and leased the city to the Mysore Kingdom of the Wadiyar dynasty. It was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj.
In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006.
Bangalore is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" (or "IT capital of India") because of its role as the nation's leading information technology (IT) exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Infosys, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Bangalore has one of the most highly educated workforces in the world. It is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore (IIITB), National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore, National Institute of Design, Bangalore (NID R&D Campus), National Law School of India University (NLSIU) and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS). Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city. The city also houses the Kannada film industry.