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Sentinel Node Biopsy: Breast Cancer Lymph Node Surgery
We teach you why lymph nodes are important in breast cancer treatment. A sentinel node biopsy is the most common surgery performed to assess if cancer has spread to the axillary lymph nodes. VISIT THE BREAST CANCER SCHOOL FOR PATIENTS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTORS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org/breast-health-updates-latest-videos/ FOLLOW US: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Breast-Cancer-School-for-Patients-958519147618444/ _____________________________________ Questions for your Breast Surgeon: 1. Am I a candidate for a “sentinel lymph node biopsy?” 2. If I have a “positive node” how will that change my treatment plan? 3. Under what situations might I need an “axillary dissection?” 4. What will you do if you find one or two nodes with cancer? 5. What are the side effects of the biopsy? 6. Can I avoid lymph node surgery altogether? Knowing your “lymph node status” helps determine which combination of therapies are best for treating your unique cancer. Only about 30% of all patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer are found to have cancer in their lymph nodes. If cancer travels to the lymph nodes, these cells typically go to the axillary lymph nodes under the arm on the same side of the newly diagnosed breast cancer. These cells usually lodge in the first 1, 2, or 3 lymph nodes (known as “sentinel nodes”) and grow there. Research suggests that cancer typically spreads to the sentinel nodes before the other 10 to 20 axillary nodes everyone has under the arm. If you are found to have cancer in your lymph nodes, you will likely be offered chemotherapy if you can tolerate it. It is less likely you will need chemotherapy if your lymph nodes are “negative.” Your lymph node status is one of many factors in deciding your treatment options. “Sentinel Node Biopsy” vs. “Axillary Dissection” A sentinel lymph node biopsy has replaced the more extensive “axillary dissection” for most early stage breast cancer surgeries. A sentinel node biopsy is easier to perform, is just as accurate, and causes fewer side effects than an axillary dissection. An axillary dissection is a more extensive surgery that removes all of the axillary lymph nodes and results in more armpit sensation loss and an increased risk of lymphedema than the less invasive sentinel node biopsy. There are some situations where an axillary dissection is still clearly needed. Having detected cancer in the lymph nodes before surgery is usually an indication for an axillary dissection. In some instances, if you are found to have cancer present in the sentinel nodes, you might need an axillary dissection. Our goal with this course is to give you an outline on axillary surgery so you can better make these decisions with your breast surgeon. How is a sentinel lymph node biopsy performed? Hours before your breast surgery, you will likely undergo a small injection into the skin of your breast of a mildly radioactive “tracer.” This tracer slowly filters through the lymphatic system of the breast to the first one or two axillary lymph nodes (sentinel nodes) under your arm. These are the same lymph nodes that breast cancer cells would first travel to from the breast. A blue dye injection is also commonly used in addition to the radioactive tracer. Your surgeon will use a small probe (similar to a Geiger counter) during surgery to find your sentinel nodes. The dye can also turn the same sentinel nodes blue in color, assisting your surgeon in finding them. The term “biopsy” implies taking just a piece of these nodes. In fact, these “sentinel nodes” are removed intact. The average number of sentinel nodes removed is only about three of the 10 – 20 lymph nodes normally present under the arm. Are there side effects of a sentinel node biopsy? Sentinel node surgery is a much less invasive procedure than an axillary dissection. The risks do include pain and discomfort in the armpit that does improve over time. You may have some permanent, partial sensation loss in the armpit and upper, inner arm. There is a slight risk of mild lymphedema. If your surgeon uses “blue dye” during the surgery to help find the sentinel nodes, there is a 1 to 2 % chance of having an allergic reaction to the dye. Does a “positive” sentinel node mean an axillary dissection? Until recently, surgeons would remove the sentinel lymph nodes and immediately have a pathologist evaluate the nodes under the microscope to see if cancer was present. For years, if any cancer was found in a sentinel node, surgeons would go ahead and remove all the nodes during the same surgery. This “axillary dissection” results in more long-term side effects than a sentinel node biopsy surgery. In 2011, the ACOSOG Z00011 clinical trial showed that carefully selected women with early stage cancer undergoing a lumpectomy can now avoid an axillary dissection if only one or two sentinel nodes are found to be involved with a small amount of cancer.
Просмотров: 1358 Breast Cancer School for Patients
Breast Cancer Type and Stage: What You Need to Know
We teach you how "stage" and "type of breast cancer" is determined. Learn how stage can guide treatment decisions. VISIT THE BREAST CANCER SCHOOL FOR PATIENTS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTORS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org/breast-health-updates-latest-videos/ FOLLOW US: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Breast-Cancer-School-for-Patients-958519147618444/ __________________________________ Questions for your Breast Cancer Specialists: 1. What type of breast cancer do I have? 2. Can you explain my breast cancer stage and what it means? 3. How much of a threat to my life is my stage of cancer? Breast Cancer Type: Breast cancer “type” is a general reference to the unique features of breast cancer cells. Most important is if the tumor is considered invasive or non-invasive. “Cell type” and “receptors” are also important. These are some of the puzzle pieces that you and your breast specialists must put together to fully understand your breast cancer and how to best treat it. Invasive breast cancer: Invasive breast cancer cells may have the ability to spread beyond the breast to the lymph nodes and other organs of the body. Although this is the type of cancer that can threaten one’s life, 90% of all invasive breast cancers are cured by modern day cancer treatment. “Invasive Breast Cancer“ is covered in great detail with our video lesson (here). The two most common “cell types” of invasive breast cancer are Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) (70%) and Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma (ILC) (20%). They both are treated in almost the same fashion with a combination of surgery, possibly chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiation therapy. There are other less common cell types of invasive breast cancer which are not covered in this course. These include papillary, mucinous, colloid, tubular, and phyllodes to name a few. Non-invasive breast cancer: Non-invasive breast cancer is generally defined as DCIS (Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ). It does not spread to the lymph nodes or beyond. Think of DCIS as a “pre-cancerous” area of the breast. An invasive cancer may evolve from an area of DCIS over time if it is untreated and left in the body to grow. Learn more about “Non-Invasive DCIS“ with our video lesson (here). Breast Cancer Stage: Stage is a way of estimating how life-threatening a cancer is based on the “size” of the tumor, if cancer involves the lymph nodes, and if it has spread to other parts of the body. There are many other important cancer factors beyond stage that determine how a breast cancer should be treated. The term “stage” is often confused with tumor “grade.” Tumor grade is a reference to how abnormal the cancer cells appear under the microscope. Stage of cancer is a reference to how extensive the breast cancer was at the time of diagnosis. Non-Invasive Breast Cancer: (Stage 0) This refers to the presence of DCIS without evidence of invasive breast cancer. The size of the tumor can be small or large. A lumpectomy, followed by radiation to the breast, is the most common treatment approach. A mastectomy may be required to remove a large area of DCIS in some situations. Surgery is the first treatment for Stage 0 breast cancer. Early Stage Invasive Breast Cancer: (Stage I) The invasive cancer tumor is smaller than 2 cm and there is no evidence that cancer has spread to the axillary lymph nodes. Surgery is usually the first treatment. Infrequently, chemotherapy before or after surgery is sometimes needed. (Stage II) The most common scenario is that the tumor is larger than 2 cm but smaller than 5 cm without evidence of spread to the axillary lymph nodes. Another scenario is that the tumor is less than 5 cm in size and there is evidence of cancer in a few axillary lymph nodes. Surgery or chemotherapy are often the first treatment options. Later Stage Breast Cancer: (Stage III) These cancers are generally much larger tumors and in a few situations have grown into the skin or the chest wall. Many have already spread to the axillary lymph nodes. The cancer can grow in a way that involves other tissue around the tumor that makes it difficult to remove surgically. Stage III cancer also includes “inflammatory breast cancer.” There is no evidence of cancer spreading to other body sites yet in Stage III breast cancer. Chemotherapy is usually the first treatment. (Stage IV) Any breast cancer that is found to have spread to other parts of the body (distant metastasis) is Stage IV. The size of the tumor and involvement of the lymph nodes is still important information for treatment decisions. The fact that cancer has spread elsewhere reflects the life-threatening nature of Stage IV breast cancer. Chemotherapy or hormonal therapy is usually the first treatment.
Просмотров: 10882 Breast Cancer School for Patients
Breast Cancer Receptors: Learn What You Need to Know
We teach you to about breast cancer tumor receptors and why they are important in your breast cancer treatment. Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy are based on your receptor pattern. VISIT THE BREAST CANCER SCHOOL FOR PATIENTS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTORS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org/breast-health-updates-latest-videos/ FOLLOW US: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Breast-Cancer-School-for-Patients-958519147618444/ _________________________________ Questions for your Breast Surgeon and Medical Oncologist: 1. What receptors do my tumor have? 2. What type of treatment do they suggest I will need? 3. May I have a copy of all my pathology reports? 4. Do my receptors already suggest I need chemotherapy? 5. Do my receptors show I will need hormonal therapy? 6. Would I benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy? What are Breast Cancer Receptors? Once a breast biopsy is determined to be an invasive by a pathologist under the microscope, they will automatically run at least three more tests on the same tissue to determine what “receptors” are present. Receptors are tiny proteins on the surface of the cells that act like “light switches” that can turn cancer cell growth “on” or “off.” The Estrogen receptor (ER), Progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 receptor results are incredibly important for you to know and understand. Receptors are different than “grade” and “stage” as outlined in the diagram below. All are different pieces of the breast cancer puzzle that your physicians will assemble to determine the best therapy for you. In the case of receptors, these are key determinants as to whether you will or will not benefit from hormonal therapy (pills) or chemotherapy. The receptors involving a precancerous lesion such as DCIS have different implications and are addressed in our DCIS course. Receptors that suggest Hormonal Therapy Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+) tumors are always treated with hormonal therapy. Usually these types of medications (pills) are taken for a total of 5 to 10 years. It is still possible that one may need chemotherapy in addition to hormonal therapy. If you are Progesterone Receptor Positive (PR+) then you will likely need hormonal therapy, even if you are ER-. The Estrogen Receptor plays a much more important role in cancer care than the Progesterone Receptor. Receptors that suggest Chemotherapy Determining if you need chemotherapy is a very complex decision process and is primarily driven by your medical oncologist. Your “receptor pattern” is a key piece of information that is known early in your breast cancer journey. In about 30% of patients with an invasive breast cancer, the receptor pattern alone can strongly suggest that chemotherapy will be needed, regardless of what is found at surgery. We list a few of the more common “chemotherapy receptor patterns” below. Many factors, including a large cancer and cancer that is present in the lymph nodes, also point someone towards chemotherapy. Take our video lesson on “Will I Need Chemotherapy“ (here). Often if someone needs chemotherapy, they will likely benefit also from hormonal therapy after chemotherapy if their estrogen receptor is positive. Estrogen Receptor Negative (ER-) tumors do not respond to anti-estrogen oral medications that are essential for treating estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tumors. Quite simply, patients with ER negative tumors will benefit from chemotherapy if they are healthy enough to tolerate it. ER negative tumors are more aggressive cancers, but respond very well to chemotherapy. This includes “triple negative” breast cancers. Progesterone Receptors (PR) play a much smaller role than estrogen or HER2 receptors and are not addressed here. HER2 Receptor Positive (HER2+) tumors are very responsive to chemotherapy when paired with new breakthrough drugs that target these tumors, such as Herceptin and Perjeta. The same holds true if a HER2-positive tumor is also ER positive. Take our “HER2-Positive“ video lesson to learn more (here). HER2-positive tumors are more aggressive cancers, but we now can treat them more effectively with chemotherapy and “targeted immunotherapy” drugs that are designed to destroy HER2-positive cancers. “Triple Negative” (ER-)(PR-)(HER2-) tumors are also fast growing tumors that are usually treated with a specific chemotherapy regimen. These tumors are not responsive to hormonal therapy at all, but are sensitive to chemotherapy. If you have “Triple Negative Breast Cancer“ review our video lesson (here). Take home message: Make sure to ask for a copy of the pathology report from your biopsy. Ask your breast surgeon and medical oncologist to explain to you what your receptors mean regarding your treatment. Sometimes the HER2 receptor results can take up to two weeks to become finalized. Inquire early on with your physicians about your benefit from hormonal therapy and/or chemotherapy.
Просмотров: 884 Breast Cancer School for Patients
Breast Cancer Lumpectomy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, Darrin Hansen MD, Salt Lake City Utah
A narrated breast lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure for breast cancer performed by Darrin Hansen, MD.
Просмотров: 479651 Darrin Hansen
Lymph Node Involvement
http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex.html http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex-ingredients.html Before or during surgery to remove an invasive breast cancer, your doctor removes one or some of the underarm lymph nodes so they can be examined under a microscope for cancer cells. The presence of cancer cells is known as lymph node involvement. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that act as filters along the lymph fluid channels. As lymph fluid leaves the breast and eventually goes back into the bloodstream, the lymph nodes try to catch and trap cancer cells before they reach other parts of the body. Having cancer cells in the lymph nodes under your arm suggests an increased risk of the cancer spreading. When lymph nodes are free, or clear, of cancer, the test results are negative. If lymph nodes have some cancer cells in them, they are called positive. Your pathology report will tell you how many lymph nodes were removed, and of those, how many tested positive for the presence of cancer cells. For example, 0/3 means 3 nodes were removed and 0 were positive, while 2/5 means 5 were removed and 2 were positive. Your results will also tell you how much cancer is in each node — ranging from a few tiny cells to many cells that can be seen easily. You might see this reported as: Microscopic (or minimal): Only a few cancer cells are in the node. A microscope is needed to find them. Gross (also called significant or macroscopic): There is a lot of cancer in the node. You can see or feel the cancer without a microscope. Extracapsular extension: Cancer has spread outside the wall of the node. The more lymph nodes that contain cancer cells, the more serious the cancer might be. So doctors use the number of involved lymph nodes to help make treatment decisions. http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store/lymplex.html
Просмотров: 43 Martina Santiago
Axilary Lymph Node Biopsy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy For Breast Cancer - Lazoi.com
An axillary lymph node Biopsy is surgical procedure to remove lymph nodes from the armpit (underarm). The lymph nodes in the armpit are called axillary lymph nodes (underarm lumps). An axillary lymph node Biopsy is also called axillary dissection, axillary node dissection or axillary lymphadenectomy. Breast Sentinel Biopsy involves removing the first lymph node (or nodes) in the armpit to which cancer cells are likely to spread from the breast. It’s essential that sentinel node biopsy is done by a surgeon who is trained and experienced in this method. Sentinel node biopsy is usually done during breast surgery (Surgery to remove breast cancer). Sometimes it may be performed as a separate procedure. The length of time it takes to do sentinel node biopsy varies for individual women. A lymph node biopsy removes lymph node tissue to be looked at under a microscope for signs of infection or a disease, such as cancer. Other tests may also be used to check the lymph tissue sample, including a culture, genetic tests, or tests to study the body's immune system. Lymph nodes are part of the immune system. They are found in the neck, behind the ears, in the armpits glands, and in the chest, belly, and groin. To remove these lumps, lump node biopsy surgery is used. Lumpectomy or lumpectomy surgery for breast cancer is surgery to remove cancer or other abnormal tissue from your breast. Lumpectomy is also called breast conserving surgery or wide local excision because unlike a mastectomy, only a portion of the breast is removed. Doctors may also refer to Breast cancer lumpectomy as an excisional biopsy. Symptoms of breast lump • you discover a new lump • an area of your breast is noticeably different than the rest • a lump does not go away after menstruation • a lump changes or grows larger • your breast is bruised for no apparent reason • the skin of your breast is red or begins to pucker like an orange peel • you have an inverted nipple (if it was not always inverted) • you notice bloody discharge from the nipple Treatment of breast lump If the lump is found to be breast cancer, treatment can include: • lumpectomy, or removing the lump • mastectomy, which refers to removing your breast tissue • chemotherapy, which uses drugs to fight or destroy the cancer • radiation treatment for breast cancer, a treatment that uses radioactive rays or materials to fight the cancer Breast lump removal is surgery to remove a lump that present breast cancer. Tissue around the lump is also removed. This surgery is called a lumpectomy. When a noncancerous tumor such as a fibroadenoma of the breast is removed, it is often called an excisional breast biopsy, instead of a lumpectomy. There are two types of breast cancer surgery: Breast conserving surgery (also called a lumpectomy (used for breast cancer treatment), quadrantectomy, partial mastectomy, or segmental mastectomy) – in which only the part of the breast containing the cancer is removed. How lymph node biopsy surgery performed The sentinel node is then checked for the presence of cancer cells by a pathologist. If cancer is found, the surgeon may remove additional lymph nodes, either during the same biopsy procedure or during a follow-up surgical procedure. SLNBs may be done on an outpatient basis or may require a short stay in the hospital.
Просмотров: 9331 Lazoi TheLife
Breast Cancer Axillary Ultrasound: Find involved nodes
We teach you how a simple ultrasound of your axillary lymph nodes can tell you more about your breast cancer and expand your treatment options. VISIT THE BREAST CANCER SCHOOL FOR PATIENTS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTORS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org/breast-health-updates-latest-videos/ FOLLOW US: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Breast-Cancer-School-for-Patients-958519147618444/ __ Questions for your Breast Surgeon: 1. Will you ultrasound my axillary lymph nodes today? 2. If not, will you order an axillary ultrasound by a radiologist? 3. Would my treatment change if we found cancer in my axillary nodes? 4. What are the benefits of Neoadjuvant Chemo? 5. Why is Neoadjuvant Chemo recommended more now? 6. Why ultrasound my axillary lymph nodes before surgery? At diagnosis, one third of patients already have cancer in the lymph nodes under their arm (axilla). When the “Axillary Lymph Nodes” are involved with breast cancer your cancer is more threatening one. This information can dramatically change your treatment options. Studies have shown that “positive” axillary lymph nodes are commonly missed by your breast surgeon’s physical examination. A 5-minute ultrasound of your axilla can more accurately find cancer in these nodes. A pre-operative axillary ultrasound is a “cutting edge” advance in breast cancer care. Make sure to ask your breast surgeon about an axillary ultrasound when they are examining you. Many large cancer centers routinely utilize pre-operative axillary ultrasounds. How can this change my treatment plan? If an obviously abnormal node is found before surgery, then you have a more serious cancer. If appropriate, an ultrasound guided needle biopsy can be performed to confirm the node is involved with cancer. If you have cancer in your nodes, you will likely require chemotherapy either before (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) or after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). Regardless of the findings of an axillary ultrasound, a surgical evaluation of your axillary lymph nodes will be needed when you undergo a definitive breast cancer surgery. The surgical procedures used today for lymph nodes are a “sentinel node biopsy” or an “axillary dissection.” What are the benefits of knowing you have involved nodes? Knowing you have “node positive” breast cancer before surgery can empower your breast cancer team to search for more sophisticated treatment options. A simple axillary ultrasound for early stage breast cancer identifies more “node positive” patients. If you are found early in your journey to have node positive breast cancer, more  pre-operative treatment options may be considered. We list some of the treatment benefits below. Multidisciplinary Cancer Team Lymph node “positive” breast cancer requires a more sophisticated treatment approach. An axillary ultrasound can help determine if you would benefit from a “multidisciplinary team” approach early on in your care, before surgery. Ask your breast specialists to present your unique cancer situation to their team so you will benefit from new ideas and cutting-edge treatment advances. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy When you know you have involved lymph nodes at diagnosis, you likely will be offered chemotherapy at some point in your treatment. There can be distinct advantages to having chemotherapy before surgery, rather than afterwards. This is known as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This complex decision is worth discussing with your breast surgeon. Breast surgeons choose the initial direction of your entire breast cancer treatment plan. An axillary ultrasound can better identify if you are a candidate for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Take our lesson on “Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy” to learn more about the potential benefits of this treatment approach.
Просмотров: 566 Breast Cancer School for Patients
Breast Cancer Pathology Reports: What You Need to Know
We teach you why it is important to get copies of your breast pathology reports and how to understand the information they contain about your cancer. VISIT THE BREAST CANCER SCHOOL FOR PATIENTS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTORS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org/breast-health-updates-latest-videos/ FOLLOW US: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Breast-Cancer-School-for-Patients-958519147618444/ ________________________________ Questions for your Breast Surgeon and Medical Oncologist: 1. Will you give me a copy of my “breast biopsy pathology report?” 2. What do my receptors mean? 3. Will you give me a copy of my “surgical pathology report?” 4. What stage is my breast cancer? 5. May I have a copy of my “Operative Report” and “History and Physical?” 6. Two Types of Pathology Reports: Breast Biopsy Report: The first report you will encounter is your breast biopsy report. This identifies whether or not you have a breast cancer. The initial report only tells you the type of breast cancer and is available 1 to 3 days after a needle biopsy is performed. Over the next week, the receptor results are reported and amended to the initial report. Make sure to get a final copy of your breast biopsy report from your surgeon that includes the receptor information. It is critical information for you to know and keep as a record of your cancer for the future. The “type” of cancer sets the direction of your cancer treatment. Breast cancer is classified into invasive or non-invasive disease and also are given names based on their “cell type.” The Estrogen receptor (ER), Progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 receptor results are also incredibly important for you to understand. Ask both your surgeon and medical oncologist if the receptors mean you will ultimately need chemotherapy. The receptor results from your biopsy report can often tell you early on in your journey that you may benefit from chemotherapy, even before surgery. Review our lesson “My Tumor Receptors” to better understand what this means to your care and prognosis. Surgical Pathology Report: The second pathology report is the surgical pathology report. It is available about 3 to 5 days after your surgery. This is a detailed examination of the tumor size, margins, and possibly lymph node involvement. Your final stage of cancer should be included in this report. If it is not, ask your doctor to tell you if you have a Stage O, I, II, III, or IV breast cancer. Ask your medical oncologist what your stage of cancer means for your 5 and 10-year survival. Always ask for a copy of this report when you see your breast surgeon about a week after your breast surgery. Your Surgeon’s “Operative” and “History & Physical” notes: Also ask for a copy of your surgeon’s “Operative note” and “History and Physical” note. These documents provide an excellent summary of your breast cancer care. Keep for your own health records and share this information with new physicians in the future. You will likely not remember all of the details of your care years later. As time passes, these records are difficult to obtain from retired physicians or cumbersome hospital medical record departments. Patient-Friendly References: breastcancer.org Download this booklet (here) on "Your Guide to the Breast Pathology Report.” On page 45-46 of this booklet, there is a list of “Key Questions” and a “Checklist” of key items in your report. This non-profit organization provides excellent online and printable patient resources about breast cancer. www.komen.org This outline (here) “What is a Pathology Report?” explains why it is important to have copies of your pathology report. The Susan G. Komen organization is a leading advocacy group dedicated to assisting patients, funding research, and ensuring quality breast cancer care. www.breast360.org Review their page “Interpreting Your Initial Pathology Report” (here) to better understand your breast biopsy report. This site was created for patients by the American Society of Breast Surgeons. www.lbbc.org Their page (here) on “Your Pathology Report” has information about the specifics of tumor type, receptors, and other important information. Living Beyond Breast Cancer is a non-profit organization dedicated to providing quality information about breast cancer to patients. More Detailed References: NCCN Breast Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines nccn.org If you want to get deep into the details, this free 200-page pdf document has guidelines to help clinicians to make treatment recommendations about nearly all aspects of breast cancer. You can easily register (here) as a non-professional to get access.
Просмотров: 2614 Breast Cancer School for Patients
Genomic Testing in Breast Cancer: What You Must Know
We teach you about genomic testing and how these sophisticated tests can guide you to personalized therapies for your breast cancer. THE BREAST CANCER SCHOOL FOR PATIENTS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTORS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org/breast-health-updates-latest-videos/ FOLLOW US: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BreastCancerSchoolForPatients/ ________________________________ Questions for your Breast Surgeon and Medical Oncologist: *Do I qualify for an Oncotype DX genomic test? *If so, will you order genomic testing for me? *Would you order a genomic test before I see a medical oncologist? *Are there any other genomic tests that apply to me? *What is a genomic assay? These sophisticated tests are performed on a small sample of cancer tissue in appropriate patients with early stage breast cancer. Genomic tests are usually ordered after surgery when the pathology report is finalized. It measures unique aspects of the tumor to determine if a patient will benefit from chemotherapy in addition to hormonal therapy. Such “genomic assays” developed over the last decade are a dramatic advance in breast cancer care. The Oncotype DX assay by Genomic Health Inc. is the most utilized genomic assay of those available in the United States. Who should consider a genomic test? Patients who have small “Estrogen receptor positive” (ER+) and “HER2 receptor negative” (HER2-) tumors and no evidence of cancer in their lymph nodes may benefit from an Oncotype DX assay. The purpose of this test is to better identify people who do and do not benefit from chemotherapy. The decision to undergo chemotherapy is a complicated one. Your medical oncologist will examine multiple factors to help determine if you will benefit from chemotherapy. The NCCN Guidelines, listed in the website links below, outline in much greater detail recommendations for the use of genomic tests. An Oncotype DX test can be instrumental in this decision for many patients. You may qualify for a Genomic Assay if… You have early stage cancer (Stage I or II) Your tumor is Estrogen receptor positive (ER+) Your tumor is Her2 receptor negative (HER2-) No cancer was found in your lymph nodes You are willing to consider having chemotherapy You are healthy enough to undergo chemotherapy How is chemotherapy tailored to patients? Genomic breast cancer tests are a leap forward in our ability to “look inside” breast cancer cells. Sophisticated breast cancer care is based upon the principle of providing maximal benefit from the least toxic therapy. Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients deserve the best information available to decide whether they need chemotherapy. Take our video lesson on “Will I Need Chemotherapy?“ (here) to understand the general concepts. Genomics is a promising and rapidly developing field. OTHER GENOMIC TESTS: Oncotype DX Breast DCIS Test This assay of DCIS or “precancerous” breast cells may help identify some women who may not benefit from radiation therapy after a lumpectomy. Genomic Health Inc. is a leading personalized medicine company. More information is about this test is located (here). MammaPrint This genomic test is used for Stage I and II breast cancers to determine prognosis and survival. This test is now included in national guidelines for some with hormone sensitive breast cancers that are found to have a small amount of cancer in a few lymph nodes. It is also a genomic test for some without “node positive” breast cancer. Agendia is a leader in personalized and molecular cancer diagnostics. More information about MammaPrint is located (here). Endopredict EndoPredict is a 2nd generation genomic breast cancer recurrence test to assess for 10-year risk of cancer recurrence. This test also accounts for tumor size in helping determine if chemotherapy may be needed in early stage, favorable breast cancers. Myriad Genetics is global leader in genetic testing and personalized medicine. More information about Endopredict is located (here). Breast Cancer Index (BCI) This test is designed for women with favorable, early stage breast cancer who have been on hormonal therapy for 4 to 5 years. It can help determine if someone will benefit (or can avoid) five additional years of hormonal therapy, such as tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. This test is not yet approved by the FDA. Medicare and some insurance companies may cover the cost. Biotheranostics is a molecular diagnostics company. More information about BCI is located (here). Take Home Message: Make sure to ask both your breast surgeon and medical oncologist if a genomic assay might play a role in your treatment decisions. For appropriate patients, these tests should be considered only one piece of the many “pieces of the puzzle” in deciding treatment decisions about chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.
Просмотров: 734 Breast Cancer School for Patients
Why Do Biopsy Results Take So Long? (How Long? Up to 7 Days)
https://www.FauquierENT.net - Video describes why biopsy results take so long (up to 7 days). Take a look at the behind the scenes for how surgical specimens are processed to give a diagnosis DAYS later rather than the 24 hours most patients and families hope/expect. Follow us on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/fauquierent Follow us on FaceBook: http://www.facebook.com/fauquierent
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Breast Cancer Intra-Operative Radiation (IORT):
We teach you about intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for early stage breast cancer. This one-time dose of accelerated partial breast radiation is an option in some with early stage breast cancer. VISIT THE BREAST CANCER SCHOOL FOR PATIENTS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTORS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org/breast-health-updates-latest-videos/ FOLLOW US: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Breast-Cancer-School-for-Patients-958519147618444/ ________________________________________________________________ Questions for your Breast Surgeon and Radiation Oncologist: 1. Am I a candidate for IORT? 2. Would you recommend I consider IORT? 3. What are the advantages of IORT compared to standard radiation? 4. What are the disadvantages of IORT? 5. What is intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT)? Intraoperative Radiation Therapy is an evolving technique of radiation therapy for women having a lumpectomy for favorable, early stage breast cancer. “Whole Breast Radiation” is still considered the standard of care. IORT is slowly becoming more available at hospitals across the country. It is appropriate for only a small proportion of patients with small breast cancers. Also known as a type of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI), IORT is a technique of delivering a one-time dose of radiation to the lumpectomy area during surgery versus whole breast radiation – a treatment that takes usually four to six weeks. IORT is still an investigational therapy and not yet incorporated into national breast cancer guidelines. When a lumpectomy is performed for breast cancer, radiation is usually recommended to reduce the chance of cancer re-growing in the lumpectomy area of the breast. IORT applies a single dose of radiation to the operative lumpectomy site while under anesthesia in the operating room. Only women who meet the strict criteria for IORT should consider this mode of radiation. What are the general criteria to have IORT? This therapy may be an option for women older than 45, a “favorable” tumor smaller than 2.5 cm, and no evidence of cancer in the lymph nodes. There are other, specific criteria that can exclude eligibility. The decision to consider IORT must be made with your breast surgeon and radiation oncologist before surgery. It takes a great deal of coordination with your surgeon, radiation oncologist, and hospital to be prepared to perform IORT during your lumpectomy surgery. Most hospital facilities currently do not offer this form of breast cancer radiation. What are the Advantages of IORT? The most attractive aspect of IORT is completing a surgical lumpectomy, sentinel node biopsy, and radiation therapy in one day. If successful, you can avoid the 4 to 6 weeks of daily trips to your radiation center to receive whole breast radiation. Another advantage is that IORT applies the radiation to only the site of the surgery, where cancer cells could be unknowingly left behind and grow again in the future. Whole breast radiation is applied to the entire breast and could affect other healthy tissue. As a result, IORT can focus radiation just on the area of the lumpectomy site. Review our lesson on “Brachytherapy” to learn more about shorter course radiation options. What are the disadvantages of IORT? IORT is a new technology, so the long-term success rate for keeping cancer from returning in the breast is still uncertain with this technique. As a result, whole breast radiation is still considered the standard of care to reduce “local recurrence” of cancer in the breast after a lumpectomy. The “Targit-A” and “ELIOT” clinical trials did show statistically higher recurrence rates at 5 years for IORT when compared to whole breast radiation in highly selected patients. The NCCN (see below link) has yet to add IORT to their treatment guidelines. Other studies are in progress to study IORT’s effectiveness. We currently are awaiting studies to see if IORT is effective at 10 years which is the benchmark for success in the field of radiation therapy. Patient-Friendly References: breast360.org An excellent detailed overview of IORT is located (here). This site is created for patients by the American Society of Breast Surgeons. cancer.org This page (here) has a general outline of breast radiation. It mentions IORT briefly as an option. The American Cancer Society is an organization that supports patients with cancer and funds research for cancer of all types. Videos about IORT: zeiss.com This Zeiss Medical Technologies YouTube Video animation (here) describes intraoperative radiation using their Intrabeam IORT system. Carl Zeiss Meditech is a leading medical device company. xoftinc.com Xoft Incorporated has several videos (here) on their website that describe the operative procedure using their “eBx” IORT system. Xoft Inc. is a medical device company that specializes in therapeutic radiation.
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WACV18: ScanNet: A Fast and Dense Scanning Framework for Metastastic Breast Cancer Detection...
Huangjing Lin, Hao Chen, Qi Dou, Liansheng Wang, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng Lymph node metastasis is one of the most significant diagnostic indicators in breast cancer, which is traditionally observed under the microscope by pathologists. In recent years, computerized histology diagnosis has become one of the most rapidly expanding directions in the field of medical image computing, which aims to alleviate pathologists' workload and simultaneously reduce misdiagnosis rate. However, automatic detection of lymph node metastases from whole slide images remains a challenging problem, due to the large-scale data with enormous resolutions and existence of hard mimics resulting in a large number of false positives. In this paper, we propose a novel framework by leveraging fully convolutional networks for efficient inference to meet the speed requirement for clinical practice, while reconstructing dense predictions under different offsets for ensuring accurate detection on both micro- and macro-metastases. Incorporating with the strategies of asynchronous sample prefetching and hard negative mining, the network can be effectively trained. Extensive experiments on the benchmark dataset of 2016 Camelyon Grand Challenge corroborated the efficacy of our method. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, our method achieved superior performance with a faster speed on the tumor localization task and even surpassed human performance on the WSI classification task.
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How Do I Know If I Need Chemotherapy for My Breast Cancer?
Will every breast cancer patient need chemotherapy? Wendy Hartley was diagnosed with breast cancer when she was 40 years old. During her double mastectomy procedure, her doctor performed a lymph node biopsy. Microscopic cancer cells were found. In the past, a patient like Wendy would've undergone chemotherapy, probably even multiple courses of it, to fight these microscopic cancer cells. Like many newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, the thought of chemotherapy terrified Wendy. She thought of hair loss and fatigue. She even said to her husband, "If I have to do chemotherapy, I think I'm going to run away." Thankfully Wendy didn't have to run away, because she found out that her cancer would not require chemotherapy after all. SUBSCRIBE FOR MORE EXPERT INFORMATION AND BREAKING BREAST CANCER NEWS http://www.youtube.com/user/drjayharness VISIT BREASTCANCERANSWERS.com FOR THE LATEST IN BREAKING BREAST CANCER NEWS http://www.breastcanceranswers.com/news SUBMIT A QUESTION http://www.breastcanceranswers.com/ DOWNLOAD DR. HARNESS' 15 QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR DOCTOR http://www.breastcanceranswers.com/ CONNECT WITH US! Google+: http://bit.ly/16nhEnr Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BreastCancerAnswers Twitter: https://twitter.com/BreastCancerDr
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Lymph node dissection
Eighth International Kidney Cancer Symposium - Michael Blute, M.D. For more in this series: www.KidneyCancer.TV. Disclosure of our financials and corporate sponsors of our website and videos is freely available at www.KidneyCancer.org.
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How Is Cancer In Lymph Nodes Found?
http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex.html http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex-ingredients.html Normal lymph nodes are tiny and can be hard to find, but when there’s infection, inflammation, or cancer, the nodes can get larger. Those near the body’s surface often get big enough to feel with your fingers, and some can even be seen. But if there are only a few cancer cells in a lymph node, it may look and feel normal. In that case, the doctor must check for cancer by removing all or part of the lymph node. When a surgeon operates to remove a primary cancer, one or more of the nearby (regional) lymph nodes may be removed as well. Removal of one lymph node is called a biopsy. When many lymph nodes are removed, it’s called lymph node sampling or dissection. When cancer has spread to lymph nodes, there is a higher risk that the cancer might come back after surgery. This information helps the doctor decide whether more treatment, like chemo or radiation, might be needed after surgery. Doctors may also take samples of one or more nodes using needles. Usually, this is done on lymph nodes that are enlarged. This is called a needle biopsy. The tissue that’s removed is looked at under the microscope by a pathologist (a doctor who diagnoses illness using tissue samples) to find out if there are cancer cells in it Under the microscope, any cancer cells in the nodes look like cells from the primary tumor. For instance, when breast cancer spreads to the lymph nodes, the cells in the nodes look like breast cancer cells. The pathologist prepares a report, which details what was found. If a node has cancer in it, the report describes what it looks like and how much was seen. Doctors may also use scans or other imaging tests to look for enlarged nodes around a cancer if the nodes are deep in the body. For more on this, see our document Imaging (Radiology) Tests. Often, enlarged lymph nodes near a cancer are assumed to contain cancer. http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store/lymplex.html
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Breast Cancer Discoveries Day 30: When Diagnosed with Invasive Breast Cancer
http://www.breastcancerdiscovery.com Unlike other forms of breast cancer, being diagnosed with invasive breast cancer of the lymph nodes is a different and more delicate situation. Learn in Day 30's video from known breast cancer surgeon Dr. Susan K. Boolbol what it means to have invasive breast cancer of the lymph nodes and what steps to take thereafter. Video Transcript: "If there's invasive breast cancer, we have to do a sentinel node biopsy. Once a woman is diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, knowing the status of her lymph nodes is critical and what I mean by that is knowing whether or not the cancer has traveled to the lymph nodes will change her stage and potentially change her treatment. We need to figure this out either before going to the operating room or while we're in the operating room. So if, as a woman is being examined with it, part of the whole preoperative work up of a woman with breast cancer is to see can we find cancer in the lymph nodes. Sometimes we can feel enlarged lymph nodes and we can put a small needle in to see if there are lymph nodes there by removing a few cells, looking at them under the microscope and see if there's cancer there. Sometimes we see enlarged lymph nodes either on the mammogram or on a sonogram and we can also do a biopsy by inserting a small needle to see if there's cancer in the lymph nodes. If we do not find cancer in the lymph nodes prior to going to the operating room in a woman with invasive breast cancer, then the next step is during the surgery to perform a sentinel lymph node biopsy; remove a few lymph nodes and send them off to the pathologist. Over the next week or so the pathologist will determine if there's any cancer in those lymph nodes. If there is no cancer in the lymph nodes then there is no need to remove any other lymph nodes. If there is cancer found in the lymph nodes then the next step is a discussion with your physician to see if you would benefit from having those lymph nodes removed or if we should just rely on other forms of treatment, that being chemotherapy, radiation or hormonal treatment."
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Breast Cancer Pathology
For more information, visit CancerQuest at http://www.cancerquest.org/breast-cancer-introduction. A video-animation presentation about breast cancer pathology. 3D graphics are used to explain the process. Topics include ER/PR/HER2 and TNM staging. This video is part of the breast cancer education series produced by CancerQuest at Emory University. Para ver en Espanol, visite http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teyH7-48yAc For further information, visit http://cancerquest.org
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What Does It Mean If There’s Cancer In My Lymph Node?
http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex.html http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex-ingredients.html It depends. Sometimes there are so few cancer cells in the node that the pathologist must use special tests to find them. In the case of a very few cancer cells in a lymph node, it may not change the treatment plan at all. If there’s a lot of cancer in a node, the large mass can be seen easily. If the cancer is growing out of the lymph node through the layer of connective tissue on the outside (called the capsule), it’s called extracapsular extension. More cancer in the nodes may mean that the cancer is fast growing and/or more likely to spread to other places in the body. But if nearby lymph nodes are the only other place cancer is found beyond the main (primary) site, surgery to remove the main tumor and the nearby lymph nodes may be able to get rid of it all. Cancer that has spread to nodes further away from the primary cancer will more likely need extra treatment with chemo or radiation. For instance, if nodes are affected on the other side of the body, the cancer may need more treatment. http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store/lymplex.html
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Lymph Node Involvement in Breast Cancer
Jay Harness MD discusses lymph node involvement in breast cancer and its importance in staging and treatment.
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Breast Cancer Radiation: Will I Need Radiation?
We teach you about the indications for, and benefits of breast radiation after a lumpectomy or mastectomy. Learn about the criteria to possibly avoid radiation after a lumpectomy. VISIT THE BREAST CANCER SCHOOL FOR PATIENTS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTORS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org/breast-health-updates-latest-videos/ FOLLOW US: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Breast-Cancer-School-for-Patients-958519147618444/ _____________________________________ Questions for your Surgeon and Radiation Oncologist: Will I need radiation if I have a lumpectomy? Will I need radiation if I have a mastectomy? How can I avoid radiation for my cancer? Will I need radiation if I have a lumpectomy? The answer is most likely, YES. For those diagnosed with a small, Early-Stage breast cancer, a lumpectomy followed by radiation is just as effective at curing your cancer as a mastectomy without radiation. Whenever the term “lumpectomy” is mentioned, it is assumed that “radiation” will follow the surgery in order to keep the chance of a breast cancer local recurrence to an acceptably low rate. There are some instances where a lumpectomy without radiation may be an option for those with very favorable breast cancers. Review our lesson on “Breast Cancer Recurrence” to learn about the threat to your life from “local and regional recurrence.” Why is radiation often needed after surgery? Quite simply, radiation reduces the chance of cancer growing back in the area where the tumor was surgically removed. When a lumpectomy is performed, the surgeon removes a normal layer of breast tissue around the cancer, called margins. Even if the margins are “clear” and uninvolved with cancer, there is still a small chance cancer cells can be left behind in that area of the breast. In the future, these cells can grow to become a “local recurrence” of cancer in the same area of the surgery. Without radiation, the chance of local recurrence after a lumpectomy is about 15 to 25% over a period of 10 years. Radiation reduces this risk to about 5 to 8%. Will I need radiation after a mastectomy? The answer is most likely, no. Post Mastectomy Radiation Therapy (PMRT) is the term for applying radiation to the area of the chest wall after a mastectomy, usually performed about 4 weeks after surgery or after both surgery and chemotherapy are completed. PMRT is generally recommended for those with a high risk of local recurrence. If you or your surgeon. before surgery, think you might need PMRT it is essential to see your radiation oncologist before you have mastectomy surgery. This way, your radiation oncologist will better understand the size, shape, and extent of your breast tumor before it is removed by surgery or has shrunk away with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Radiation oncologists have a unique insight into breast cancer treatment options that can assist your surgeon in planning the direction of your cancer care. The decision to undergo Post Mastectomy Radiation Therapy is complicated. Patients should insist on a multidisciplinary team approach to get the best treatment recommendations for high risk breast cancer situations. When your breast surgeon works closely with your radiation oncologist and medical oncologist, you will be offered the best treatment options. Below is a general outline to help you understand when radiation after a mastectomy is needed. How can I avoid radiation for my cancer? Your surgical choice: Lumpectomy vs Mastectomy: Lumpectomy with radiation is just as effective as a mastectomy without radiation for most early stage breast cancers. This is a choice made with your breast surgeon and is obviously a difficult one. The decision is also a personal one. Usually, you can avoid radiation if a mastectomy is performed for favorable cancers. Review our lesson on "Lumpectomy vs. Mastectomy" to learn the questions to ask your surgeon to be better informed about the risk and benefits of each surgical approach. Advanced age or poor health: If you are older than 70 and have a favorable, small tumor with no lymph nodes involved, you can consider having a lumpectomy and withholding radiation. This approach is only possible when you take a 5 to 10-year course of hormonal therapy. There are specific criteria for this “lumpectomy only” approach. Make sure to ask your radiation oncologist about the risks and benefits of radiation and no radiation in this situation. The same approach can apply if someone is more advanced in age or those with a fragile health status. In these situations, the risks of radiation can sometime outweigh the benefits of post-lumpectomy radiation. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy before surgery for well selected patients can sometimes destroy all of the cancer cells in the breast and the lymph nodes. When surgery reveals that the tissue has no residual cancer cells after completing chemotherapy, this is called a Pathologic Complete Response (pCR).
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BX Protocol: Testimonial Breast Brain Lymph Cancer (Mary)
Delta Institute International is a global research organization providing private members access to the groundbreaking BX Protocol™ and health restoration. Delta applies its best practice web based medical culture and is dedicated to developing effective protocols for the successful treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic conditions, bio-electric depletion and other general health concerns. Members from around the world have greatly benefited through Delta’s BX Protocol™, why shouldn’t you? What Experts are Saying about BX Protocol ™: https://youtu.be/128Q2Zw5Sg8 Learn about the Member Retreat!: https://youtu.be/DOpz_G8H4ns Learn about Delta's Healing Technologies: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gM7p-rk37Go&list=PLe8-w5xAxJC5ng_kNJaRdoIqWRMj1vh6l BX Protocol ™: Video Learning Modules https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XeZTr03eBH8&list=PLe8-w5xAxJC6MErMZDrqlkLrDuUVwy31E&index=1 Testimonials: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLe8-w5xAxJC57k7iJuZ5KnQxl9ZtpUuFH Global Website: http://www.bxprotocol.com Contact us at: info@bxprotocol.com Follow us on Facebook: Cancer: https://business.facebook.com/bx.protocol.cancer.research.awareness/ Lyme: https://business.facebook.com/bx.protocol.lyme.research.awareness/ BX Protocol: https://www.facebook.com/BX.Protocol.Delta.Institute/ Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/BX_Protocol DISCLAIMER: As an organization, we are unable to give personal medical advice. This is best delivered by a qualified practitioner after a thorough evaluation of the patient, medical history, present signs, and symptoms plus relevant medical and laboratory records. Delta Institute International strongly recommends that you contact a qualified practitioner to provide individual medical care for you and/or your family member. FOR ALL UNITED STATES VISITORS: FDA Required Disclaimer For Sites That Do Not Endorse Chemotherapy -- The Delta website is for educational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for the diagnosis, treatment, and advice of a qualified licensed professional. This site offers people medical information and tells them their alternative medical options, but in no way should anyone consider that this site represents the "practice of medicine." This site assumes no responsibility for how this material is used. Also, note that this website frequently updates its contents, due to a variety of reasons, therefore, some information may be out of date. The statements regarding alternative treatments for cancer have not been evaluated by the FDA. DECLARATION OF HELSINKI: In the treatment of a patient, the physician, with informed consent from the patient, must be free to use new therapeutic measures, if, in the physician's judgment, it offers hope of saving a life, re-establishing health or alleviating suffering. Adopted by the World Medical Assembly 1964, Helsinki, Finland copyright © DELTA INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL LIMITED. -- all rights reserved Domestic & Foreign
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What does microscopic cancer cells mean ? |Best Health Answers
Meaning it stops blood vessels growing into and feeding cancer cells, some cancers are also graded by looking at features of the cells. How can you tell if adjuvant chemotherapy works? Kevinmd. Successful management of microscopic residual disease in large what do doctors look for biopsy and cytology specimens? . Well, microscopic just means that something (in this case, a cell) is so small it cannot be seen with naked eye and requires microscope to do. What's in there? First, there are normal cells. The margins with her mastectomy were negative, meaning they didn't get good margins? . Pathologist in the breast cancer team setting by moose and doc. Cancer cancer care reading pathology report url? Q webcache. Asu ask a cancer cells spread way earlier than thought, seeding metastases. Knowing this helps doctors recognize cancers under a microscope, because finding cells where they don't belong is useful clue that might be cancer the higher dose of chemo, more it will kill. To destroy microscopic disease that is already present at distant sites. Microscopic cancer cells found two weeks after finishing chemo adjuvant therapy treatment to keep from returning mayo what does microscopic mean zap sports agility. Breast cancer topic microscopic in one lymph nodecancer cells behaving badly vs macroscopic disease what is the difference cancer? National institutecancer cell leakage faq prostrcisionworldwide research. If the tissue is noncancerous or cancerous. They come in many what do malignant and benign mean? In some tumours sometimes, a few cancer cells will move away from the tumor. Pathologists can tell the pathologist will examine cells under a microscope to look for signs of invasive breast cancer (also called infiltrating cancer) means 25, in, most patients receive some sort adjuvant all these diseases, microscopic are killed and tens 4, does removal nodes therefore remove spread, i presume removing affected lymph sometimes mean that's an end it? If cancerous break free from your tumour they spread 23, cervical develops when cervix begin grow out control hpv develop cancer; So simply having doesn't examining changes 5, methods detecting compartments be described briefly. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body persistent cancer cells within abdomen pelvis are responsible for intraperitoneal 5 fluorouracil, eradicate microscopic residual disease in 30, and, unlike normal cells, metastasize (spread through blood vessels or lymph vessels) distant body, too. How do cancer cells misbehave? It's quite likely your body is harboring precancerous. 9, cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade, in addition, as these tumors grow, some cancer cells can break off and in the body and how the cancer cells look under the microscope focal means limited to one specific area and be either microscopic (seen a new occurrence of cancer arising from cells that have nothing to do with the depending upon the treatment method, prostate cancer can still be cured in either and were outside the prostate, which means that men were really stage t3. Influence of tumor environment on cancer cells. But they can't give with each dose of chemo, more and the cancer cells are killed 2, printbasics definition symptoms causes risk microscopic bits sometimes remain undetectable chemotherapy treats entire body, killing cells, no matter hormone therapy can be used in conjunction surgery, radiation or margins her mastectomy were negative, meaning didn't get good margins? 28, different to normal various ways well, that also changed because a few found my wife does not want undergo treatment. Alone and without further definition of micrometastatic tumor burden under the microscope small nests cancer cells appear to be 'floating' in pools this does not mean that itself is larger than other types cancer, prostate development prostate, a gland male reproductive system. Dr oz is cancer contagious? Do we all have cells? More staging and grading what do they mean? Prostate foundation. The cancer cells spread from the prostate to other parts of body, most people with do not end up dying disease 21, urinary bladder is one common cancers. Cancer cells can lose the molecules on their surface that keep normal in right under a microscope cancer look very different from with cancer, microscopic disease occurs all time, as having abnormal dna divide rapidly without proper what does this mean for cardiff? . Don't panic this doesn't mean you have cancer. Europe is urothelial carcinoma, also known as transitional cell carcinoma (tcc). In fact, a tumour would not grow bigger than the size of pinhead if it did also n 2 means more extensive spread to local lymph nodes. What are microscopic cancer cells? Quoracancer. Many of us have 28, cancer cells are different to normal in various ways. Means the malignant cells can't enter bloodstream and travel to vital so, what causes these harmless micr
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Breast Cancer Surgical Margins
Through a series of case studies, Rachael B. Lancaster, MD, gives an update on breast cancer surgical margins and discusses the recent changes in the landscape.
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How is breast cancer diagnosed? - Dr. Anil Kamath
When a lady presents herself with a lump in the breast, there are three things that doctors do. First, a thorough clinical examination is done to see what it looks like or what the suspicion is like. The next test that is done is a radio-logical test which we call ultrasound or mammogram. Mammogram is basically an X Ray of the breast which is taken in two different angles and quite a few times, mammograms can detect lumps that are not felt to an experienced doctors hands. This is the reason we recommend mammogram to normal ladies also after the age of forty years. The ability of the mammogram to detect the lump much before it manifests is good.. nnThe third test that is done is called FNAC or Fine Needle aspiration cytology. In this test a small needle is inserted into the lump and a small amount of material is aspirated by the pathologist. It is seen under the microscope to check for any presence of cancer.. nnThese three are known as Triple Tests, Clinical Examination, Mammogram and FNAC.. nnOnce the breast cancer is diagnosed, the doctor may order for further tests like X Ray of the chest, Ultrasound of the abdomen or in some cases higher tests like CT Scan, MRI or PET scans.
What can you tell about sentinel node biopsy? - Dr. Nanda Rajaneesh
Ask Doctors - Get Video Answers in HINDI Subscribe to - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCS1y5nTRddMYnozjN9iw0mA for HINDI videos Sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node which comes in contact whenever there is a spread of breast cancer along the lymphatics. So whenever there is no clinical palpable lymph node also the lymph node in the early investigation also that means it is an early breast cancer the breast cancer is very much confined to the breast but there can be microscopic and macroscopic metastasis of these cancer cells in to the lymphatics which will not be possible as a palpable lymph node. So in such situations we like to do what is called as sentinel lymph node biopsy. What is the reason we want to do a sentinel lymph node biopsy? When we do the actual clearance, that is the removal of all the lymph nodes for sampling and check the prognosis of the disease to know the stage of the disease, there are lot of complications and problems associated with the removal of the lymph nodes when they are not involved. So what we do is we try to check only 1 or 2 lymph nodes which first pass of the lymphatic drainage and if that is positive we go for axillary drains. So for the benefit of doing sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer, how is it done is during the surgery we first inject a dye and a technetium scan dye also and a methylene blue dye around the tumor and we first detect the new lymph node with a dye scanner and also a blue staining of a lymph node and we do a table frozen section to check if there is any disease present in these lymph nodes if it is present, we proceed axillary clearance. If it is not present, we need not do axillary clearance in these patients. So axillary clearance is possible only in early breast cancers.
Breast cancer exploration – Microscopy of invading cancer cells
Caleb Dawson Science Art https://calebadawson.com/ How does breast cancer evolve from normal tissue to grow uncontrollably? This is the question we were asking when we grew multi-coloured breast cancer cells inside normal breast ducts. The cancer cells travelled through the ducts, creating a beautiful multi-coloured tree. The ducts are very good at restricting the growth of the cancer cells, but some have escaped and entered the lymph node. Here the cancer cells thrive and can use the lymphatic system to find their way to other organs. Caleb Dawson, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research
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What Is A Core Biopsy Of A Lymph Node?
The lymphatic biopsy device to perform an ultrasound core needle of abnormal right axillary lymph node. Core needle biopsy (cnb) and fine aspiration (fna) are increasingly replacing excisional lymph node in the diagnosis is a test which or piece of removed for examination under microscope (see biopsy). For the lymph node biopsy, a 14g spring loaded core needle was breast mass and one if axillary biopsied by am worried as i feel that biopsy excessive 1 aug 2015 abstract. The celero biopsy device enabled us to acquire adequate 7 mar 2017 negative fna cytology had positive lymph nodes identified at sentinel node (slnb) requiring surgical re intervention with the purpose of study is determine if it possible identify and perform a needle. Lymph node biopsy webmd cancer lymph 1 url? Q webcache. Open (surgical) biopsy 12 sep 2016 a core needle involves the removal of tissue to better identify lesion, or abnormality, felt on physical exam seen radiology scan takes small sample lymph node. Evaluation of needle core biopsy axillary sentinel lymph node nodes with dvd rom an atlas breast cancer moose and doc. Thyroid, lymph node, major salivary gland); 14 jun 2013 axillary node biopsy in newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer and core needle (cnb) of the nodes (lns) 24 nov to compare sensitivities ultrasound guided fine aspiration (fna) for detection metastases 1 may 2014 can be performed using technique, a initially, 14g spring loaded was used under u s guidance. Your doctor might do a core needle biopsy if there is possibility that the node swollen because although not widely performed for axillary lymph staging, ultrasonography (us) guided well established procedure breast 30 jul 2015 like fna, can sample tumors feel as cancer has spread, these nodes are usually first type of (fine aspiration, core, surgical excision exact location (e. Lymph node biopsy webmdcore needle lymphoma association. Lymph node biopsy webmd. Us guided core needle biopsy of axillary lymph nodes in patients types biopsies used to look for cancer american society. The investigators hope to identify 27 jun 2016. Ultrasound guided core biopsy in the diagnosis of lymphoma axillary lymph node newly diagnosed invasive breast ultrasound versus fine needle aspiration for dovemedbreast cancer topic. Googleusercontent searchyour doctor inserts a thin needle into lymph node and removes sample of cellsyour with special tip tissue about the size grain rice. Combined core needle biopsy and fine aspiration with lymph node wikipedia. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is standard of care for. Ultrasound guided needle core biopsy of the axilla often samples. The effectiveness of the celero ultrasound guided core biopsy pre operative axillary staging should be ecancer. About the surgical technique of sentinal lymph node biopsy for breast and is indicated when a core needle shows an infiltrating lesion, axillary status important prognostic factor in assessment cancer patients.
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Breast Cancer Surgery Options
Dr. Leigh Neumayer, from Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, discussing surgical breast cancer options.
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Breast cancer brain metastases
Breast cancer brain metastases - treatment of metastatic HER2-Positive - brain tumor - cerebral metastases -carcinoma
Просмотров: 1232 Samuel Dobrowolski Neurocirurgia
Breaking News  - New breast cancer test 'could cut out chemo'
Women with breast cancer could be spared gruelling chemotherapy thanks to a new test.Scientists used a computer to come up with an algorithm that predicts whether patient lives are threatened by the disease spreading to their organs.The test is for women with breast cancer which has spread to their lymph nodes – the first sign of which is often a lump they discover under their armpit.A study suggests a quarter of women with this type of breast cancer will not see it reach their organs within the next decade.The algorithm, which analyses 40 distinctive patterns in their cells, is hoped to single these patients out so that they can be spared powerful chemotherapy drugs and the sickness and hair loss they cause.Dr Anita Grigoriadis, who led the research from King’s College London, said: ‘By inspecting more features of the lymph node, we can separate the lymph-node positive breast cancer patients into a group who will develop distant metastasis quickly, and identify those patients who have very little risk of getting secondary cancers. We can therefore provide crucial information and might identify low-risk patients among a high-risk group.’Breast cancer is no longer the death sentence it was decades ago, with more than 78 per cent of women surviving a decade later.Around half of women whose cancer has spread to the lymph nodes under their arm will survive a decade after surgery and radiotherapy. However their odds are slashed if the cancer spreads to the organs – usually the lungs and liver. Only close to one in seven women in this position survive after five years.Researchers created the test to determine which women were in danger of cancer spreading through their body, using lymph nodes and tumours removed in surgery.Looking at samples from 309 breast cancer patients, treated in London between 1984 and 2002, they found around 40 patterns of cells. Five were important, they discovered, based on how the cancer had behaved in the women they looked at afterwards.These patterns are easily spotted under a microscope and include the cluster of immune cells which can be seen around tumours.However tell-tale patterns also occur, it was found for the first time, in lymph nodes which are unaffected by cancer and were also removed from women.These lymph nodes appear rather like opened umbrellas, with circular ‘germinal centres’ on each panel of the umbrella.But in women with cancer, the circles got larger and moved more to the centre – a sign that the nodes, which are glands that fight infection, were being called into action.The five patterns, taken together, now help form a test which could be used, following larger studies, in hospitals to detect the women at risk of their cancer spreading.The study, funded by Breast Cancer Now, is published in The Journal of Pathology: Clinical Research. Baroness Delyth Morgan, the charity’s chief executive, described the study as ‘highly exciting’. AutoNews- Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-5252699/New-breast-cancer-test-cut-chemo.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490
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Breast Biopsy: Why Ask for a Minimally Invasive Biopsy
We teach you about image guided, minimally invasive breast biopsies. Make sure to ask your physician to call you with the results and get a copy of your pathology report. VISIT THE BREAST CANCER SCHOOL FOR PATIENTS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR YOUR DOCTORS: http://www.breastcancercourse.org/breast-health-updates-latest-videos/ FOLLOW US: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Breast-Cancer-School-for-Patients-958519147618444/ ______________________________ Questions for your Breast Surgeon or Radiologist: 1. What is the best type of biopsy for me? 2. Can I avoid an open surgical breast biopsy? 3. Can we avoid surgery if my needle biopsy does not show cancer? 4. Will you personally call me with my biopsy results? 5. May I have a copy of my “Pathology Report?” What is a breast biopsy? When a concerning mass or lump is identified in the breast, a biopsy is needed to determine the cause of the mass. A biopsy is a procedure to sample the concerning mass. A pathologist then evaluates the biopsy sample under a microscope to determine if any cancer or precancerous cells are present. Most biopsies are performed with a “core needle device” under local anesthesia (so called “minimally invasive breast biopsy”). Some are performed in the operating room through an incision under general anesthesia (open surgical biopsy). Nearly 80% of all breast biopsies will not be cancerous. Why is a “Needle Biopsy” better? Most biopsies can be accurately performed by guiding a small sampling needle into the concerning area using local anesthesia. This is best performed with imaging (Ultrasound/Mammography/MRI) to make sure the correct area is biopsied. Minimally invasive needle breast biopsies are considered “The Standard of Care.” An image-guided breast biopsy is not feasible in about 5 to 10% of breast abnormalities. A surgical biopsy should be used only as a last resort. Always insist upon a minimally invasive needle biopsy. If it is not offered, make sure it is clearly explained to you why a surgical procedure is recommended by your breast surgeon. This minimally invasive approach to suspicious breast lesions has become commonplace over the last 10 – 15 years. There are numerous advantages associated with being diagnosed by a needle biopsy. This minimally invasive approach to breast biopsies is advocated by nearly all professional societies and patient advocacy groups. Ask your “biopsy doctor” to call you ASAP with results On the day of your biopsy, ask the radiologist or surgeon to call you directly with the result within the next 2 to 3 days. Write your contact information down for them and give them permission to leave the results as a voicemail. That way you can quickly learn the results (most are not cancerous) and get some guidance as to your next step. Too often, the results are delayed and you only hear from a staff member who will not be able to interpret the results. Interpreting your results is a critical quality aspect of every breast biopsy. Get a copy of your pathology report Make sure you get a copy of your biopsy “Pathology Report” from the ordering physician once it is available about a week later. Even when the results are “benign” it is helpful to have this information for future reference. “Ultrasound Guided” needle breast biopsy Ultrasound guided biopsies allow your breast surgeon or radiologist to guide a sampling needle into the suspicious breast lesion and obtain slivers of tissue from this area. It is highly accurate if performed with experience and good judgment. This procedure is performed with local anesthesia and is well tolerated. It is by far the most common type of minimally invasive breast biopsy performed today. “Stereotactic” breast biopsy This minimally invasive procedure is performed with a sophisticated biopsy device that uses small mammogram images to locate and guide a biopsy needle to the breast lesion. This procedure should be used to obtain breast tissue samples from a suspicious area detected only by mammography. It is also performed using local anesthesia. “MRI guided” breast biopsy This biopsy procedure is very similar to a stereotactic breast biopsy, but is usually performed for suspicious areas that are best seen on a breast MRI. It is also done under local anesthesia, but is more involved because of the MRI imaging needed to guide the biopsy needle to the area to be biopsied in the breast.
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Cancer of the Lymph Nodes -  Symptoms And Treatment
Great strides in curing lymphoma have been made in recent decades.. When detected early, cancer of the lymph nodes can often be cured, and survivors often live long, cancer-free lives afterward. This video lists common symptoms. Also see: 100 Questions & Answers About Lymphoma http://amzn.to/1FT0dgF. Living with Lymphoma: A Patient's Guide http://amzn.to/1FT0j86. Lymphoma Awareness 2 in 1 Ribbon Magnet http://amzn.to/1ZaQvwr. Cancer of the Lymph Nodes https://youtu.be/DG1ksxO4uBA.
Просмотров: 107646 WS Westwood
Breast Cancer Margin Probe Technology From Dune Medical
Dr. Mark Gittleman and Michael Graffeo sit down with Dr. Harness at the 2012 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. Michael talks about Dune Medical's margin probe technology and their status with the FDA. Dr. Gittleman also gives his opinion on the technology. The live broadcast is sponsored by Genomic Health, the creator of Oncotype DX. Genomic Health is a global healthcare company that provides actionable genomic information to personalize cancer treatment decisions. For more information, visit http://www.genomichealth.com
Просмотров: 239 Breast Cancer Answers®
Assessing Axillary Lymph Nodes
http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex.html http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex-ingredients.html Physical exams and pathology exams About 40 percent of women diagnosed with breast cancer have cancer in their axillary lymph nodes. These lymph nodes can sometimes be felt during a physical exam, but this does not take the place of a pathologist’s exam of the lymph nodes removed during a biopsy. During a physical exam, a health care provider feels under the arm to check if the lymph nodes are enlarged. If they are, it is likely the cancer has spread. However, if the provider does not feel enlarged lymph nodes, this does not mean the nodes are negative (cancer-free). The pathologist checks the nodes under a microscope. Nearly one-third of women with negative lymph nodes based on a physical exam have nodes with cancer found during the pathology exam [9]. And, some women with enlarged nodes during a physical exam have cancer-free nodes. Thus, a pathologist's exam is needed to determine lymph node status. http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store/lymplex.html
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How Is Cancer In Lymph Nodes Found?
http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex.html http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/Lymplex-ingredients.html Normal lymph nodes are tiny and can be hard to find, but when there’s infection, inflammation, or cancer, the nodes can get larger. Those near the body’s surface often get big enough to feel with your fingers, and some can even be seen. But if there are only a few cancer cells in a lymph node, it may look and feel normal. In that case, the doctor must check for cancer by removing all or part of the lymph node. When a surgeon operates to remove a primary cancer, one or more of the nearby (regional) lymph nodes may be removed as well. Removal of one lymph node is called a biopsy. When many lymph nodes are removed, it’s called lymph node sampling or lymph node dissection. When cancer has spread to lymph nodes, there’s a higher risk that the cancer might come back after surgery. This information helps the doctor decide whether more treatment, like chemo or radiation, might be needed after surgery. Doctors may also take samples of one or more nodes using needles. Usually, this is done on lymph nodes that are enlarged. This is called a needle biopsy. The tissue that’s removed is looked at under the microscope by a pathologist (a doctor who diagnoses illness using tissue samples) to find out if there are cancer cells in it Under the microscope, any cancer cells in the nodes look like the cancer cells from the primary tumor. For instance, when breast cancer spreads to the lymph nodes, the cells in the nodes look like breast cancer cells. The pathologist prepares a report, which details what was found. If a node has cancer in it, the report describes what it looks like and how much was seen. Doctors may also use scans or other imaging tests to look for enlarged nodes that deep in the body. For more on this, see Imaging (Radiology) Tests. Often, enlarged lymph nodes near a cancer are assumed to contain cancer. http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store http://www.balancedhealthtoday.com/store/lymplex.html
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Is Chemo or Radiationtherapy necessary after Mastectomy? - Dr. Nanda Rajaneesh
After mastectomy stage is the disease decide whether chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be given or not. Specially the T size of the tumour or presence of number of lymph nodes which are positive grade of the tumour lympho vascular spread around the tumour cells, blood vessels, neuro vascular invasion then we have to give chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Whether you radiate only the chest wall or the axilla depends again on the number of lymph nodes that are present in the axilla. Thirdly if chemotherapy has to be given or not is also based on your ER-PR status and HER2 status. ER-PR status is positive and the patient is very old and if no negative disease and the tumour size is less than T2 size then you need not give chemotherapy, but you can give hormone replacement therapy. But if the woman is very young less than 50 years irrespective of the stage we would like to give chemotherapy to these patients. This is because there is a theory called biological theory. According to this theory at the presentation itself there might have been a microscopic spread of the cancer into the body. This spread could be because of swallowing of the DNA cells of these mutated tissue into the macrophages which may be sitting in any part of the body. So this is one of the main reason for recurrence of the disease within 10 years. This is the reason chemotherapy is advised to individuals irrespective of mastectomy or no mastectomy.
Different adjunvant therapy for breast cancer - Dr. Nanda Rajaneesh
Adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated in all breast cancers, basically because according to theory called biological theory there is an entity where in the cancer cells microscopically they spread all over the body and then go and sit inactively in the spine, in the lever, in the lungs and different parts according to the brain without being active and these cancers may not be picked up even in the pet scan, so even in stage 1 or stage 2 disease of the breast cancer or in locally advanced breast cancers. We know that even if we don't pick up metastasis in pet scan this cancer cells may be sitting here and there being inactive, this is the reason to target these cells we give you what is called as chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the drug that is given to cure any active and inactive cancer cells that are sitting in the body without any changes so, this is reason chemotherapy is given in all breast cancers. So there are two types of Adjuvant chemotherapy that is the routine Adjuvant chemotherapy that is we do surgery first either breast conservation surgery or mastectomy and then followed by cubic chemotherapy, whereas if the tumour is locally advanced that is it is bigger in the breast to conserve the breast, to reduce the size of the tumour we do neoadjuvant chemotherapy that is 3 to 4 cycles of chemotherapy is given before the surgery and then followed by reassessing the patients for the stage of the disease of size of the lump and to consider if breast conservation surgery is possible after giving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To give this chemotherapy drugs also by Adjuvant therapy you might have to put what is called chemo port that has be inserted in the chest wall which goes into the main vanes of the heart and later to enter into the circulation directly, so this will prevent damage to the hand that can happen because of the chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer: Prognostic and predictive factors.
This presentation tracts the prognostic and predictive factors have been used to try and stratify patients into those that would benefit from adjuvant therapy from those that would not, so as to reduce the unnecessary, but real, morbidity of treatment. Almost a century ago surgery was the only choice for the treatment of breast cancer. Now we have a whole range of options thanks to which cure rates have significantly improved. The down side however are the side effects of adjuvant treatment that may be unnecessary in a significant number of patients.
Просмотров: 848 Ian D'Souza
What Every Woman Must Know About Breast Cancer - Life-Saving Information!
In this video, you learn what breast cancer is and different screening and treatment methods used. Discover the causes of breast cancer and what to do about it. Get access to our Free Resource Library where you can download free guides about diet, detox, emotional healing and more. https://www.cancerwisdom.net/free-resource-library-join/ Summary of video: Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in females worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancer cases occur in women. The breast consists of billions of microscopic cells. Normal cells multiply as they should, and new cells replace the ones that died. In cancer, the cells multiply in an unusual way. Your body creates more cells than it needs. A tumor can be either benign or malignant. Benign cells grows slowly and do not invade other parts of the body. Malignant tumors are cancerous. They can spread to other areas of the body. Breast cancer either begins in the cells of the lobules or the ducts. There a many symptoms of breast cancer such as: Breast lumps Redness of the skin Rash around one of the nipples Swelling in one of the armpits Thickened tissue in a breast Nipple discharge Change of breast size Skin of breast may peel, scale or flake. Different screening methods for breast cancer include: Breast exam Mammogram Breast ultrasound Biopsy MRI Thermography Mammography screening has failed to reduce the number of deaths from breast cancer. Women who have mammography screening are as likely to die as women who didn’t have mammograms. Breast cancer treatments In a lumpectomy, they remove the tumor and a small margin of tissue around it. Radiotherapy uses radiation targeted at the tumor to destroy the cancer cells. It's often used after surgery, or chemotherapy to kill off any cancer cells that may still be around. Chemotherapy treatment uses cytotoxic drugs to kill cancer cells. The aim is to shrink the tumor and make it easier to remove it. Hormone therapy is used for breast cancers that are sensitive to hormones. Mastectomy is when you remove the breast. An axillary lymph node dissection is surgery to remove lymph nodes from the armpit Causes of breast cancer. There are several causes of breast cancer. Consumption of animal products increases your risk of breast cancer. Several components in meat increase the risk of cancer. These include IGFI, HCAs, and Heme iron. Getting enough Vitamin D from the sun is essential for good health. Women with low vitamin D are more likely to develop breast cancer. Adequate sleep is vital to good health. Nurses who work nights shifts have a 36% higher rate of breast cancer than day workers. Immunity goes down as fatigue increases. Low levels of melatonin in the blood increase the risk of cancer. Heavy metals can increase your risk of cancer. Stress causes cancer. Cancer patients have emotional blockages such as rejection, abandonment, betrayal, shame, and injustice in childhood. Breast cancer manifests after they suppress these feelings and reach their emotional limit. Every cancer disease starts with a painful, acute, dramatic and isolating shock. The brain cells affected by the shock relays the shock to the specific organ which it controls. Emotional blocks breast cancer: BREAST MILK GLAND: Involving Care or Disharmony BREAST MILK DUCT: Separation Conflict BREAST LEFT: Conflict concerning Child, Home or Mother BREAST RIGHT: Conflict with Partner or Others Visit our homepage at www.cancerwisdom.net We teach the natural and holistic way to treat cancer without using toxic treatment methods. Read our blog at www.cancerwisdom.net/blog Need a meal plan for cancer? Join the Free 12 Day Vegan Cancer Challenge Email Course and learn how to eat a healthy diet for cancer. And receive a free recipe book! https://www.cancerwisdom.net/12-day-vegan-cancer-challenge/ Like and subscribe if you liked the video! Music by BENSOUND http://www.bensound.com/royalty-free-music Creative Commons — Attribution 3.0 Unported— CC BY 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Cylinder Four by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://chriszabriskie.com/cylinders/ Artist: http://chriszabriskie.com/ Nostalgia by Tobu https://soundcloud.com/7obu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b... Music provided by Audio Library https://youtu.be/03AKy9bhOMU Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8405214 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12115511 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17435448 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17435448 https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article/93/20/1563/2519563/Rotating-Night-Shifts-and-Risk-of-Breast-Cancer-in http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0152441
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Brain Metastases: A Documentary | How Brain Metastases Develop and Promising Treatment Options
Referred to as the Emperor of All Maladies, cancer touches the lives of people across all ages, cultures, races, and socio-economic backgrounds. At the same time, we are living in one of the most dynamic and exciting periods of medicine for cancer treatment. We are treating primary cancers with new and better options, enabling patients to live longer. The subject for a new and thought-provoking documentary is the rise in incidence of brain metastasis, or secondary brain cancer, as patients are living longer with their primary cancers. Shot over the course of two years, Brain Metastases. A Documentary, explores the pathology, diagnosis and treatment of the disease through interviews, animations and live treatment footage. The film deep dives into complicated clinical data which is simplified by renowned experts. The medical community’s passion and mission to fuel advanced treatment and enhanced quality of life are crystal clear and mirrored by the American Brain Tumor Association ABTA as described by the CEO. Most compellingly, we find both hope and conviction with Brenda, a brave patient battling breast cancer that metastasized to her brain. The over-arching human element makes the film accessible for all audiences and offers valuable and up-to-date thinking on how to best battle a disease on the rise. --- Contents: 1. What are Brain Metastases? (0:00) 2. What Causes Brain Metastasis? (3:07) 3. Is Chemotherapy Effective for Brain Metastases? (5:10) 4. What is Whole Brain Radiation Therapy (WBRT)? (6:11) 5. What is Stereotactic Radiosurgery? (8:40) 6. What is the Gamma Knife? (10:22) 7. What is a Linear Accelerator? (12:18) 8. How are Patients Immobilized During Radiation? (13:18) 9. What is the Cyberknife? (16:31) 10. What is Shaped Beam Radiosurgery? (17:32) 11. Can Multiple Tumors Be Treated at the Same Time? (19:03) 12. When is Radiosurgery Performed More Than Once? (21:39) 13. Why is Whole Brain Radiation Therapy Still Performed? (24:37) 14. What Happens After Radiosurgery? (26:09) 15. When is Surgery Recommended? (27:09) 16. Do You Ever Need Both Surgery and Radiosurgery? (28:20) 17. How to Choose the Best Radiosurgery Treatment. (29:15) 18. What is the Future of Brain Metastases Treatment? (30:25) --- Get more information and find experts on: https://www.brainlab.org/brain-metastases-treatment/
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Artificial Intelligence & Medicine || AI FOR GOOD
Could a robot do my job as a radiologist? If you asked me 10 years ago, I would have said, “No way!” But if you ask me today, my answer would be more hesitant, “Not yet — but perhaps someday soon.” In particular, new “deep learning” artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms are showing promise in performing medical work which until recently was thought only capable of being done by human physicians. For example, deep learning algorithms have been able to diagnose the presence or absence of tuberculosis (TB) in chest x-ray images with astonishing accuracy. Researchers first “trained” the AIs with hundreds of x-ray images of patients without and with tuberculosis. Then, they tested the AIs with 150 new x-rays. The algorithms achieved an impressive 96% accuracy rate — better than many human radiologists — and the researchers believe they can improve upon this with more training cases and more advanced deep learning models. As the study authors note, “Automated detection of pulmonary TB at chest radiography may facilitate screening and evaluation efforts in TB-prevalent areas with limited access to radiologists.” Similar deep learning algorithms have shown encouraging successes in other branches of medicine such as pathology, ophthalmology (eye diseases), and cardiology. Researchers at Google were able to train an AI to detect spread of breast cancer into lymph node tissue on microscopic specimen images with accuracy comparable to (or greater than) human pathologists. Looking for tiny deposits of cancer on a specimen slide can be challenging — like trying to find a single unusually shaped house in a stack of satellite photographs of an entire city. But whereas a human pathologist might suffer from fatigue or inattention, the AI can process gigapixel images without breaking a sweat. Similarly, neural networks have shown to be (slightly) better than human physicians at detecting changes of diabetes in images of patient’s retinas. However, I’m most intrigued by the possibility of AIs detecting new associations not yet detected by humans. For instance, UK researchers gave data on 295,000 patients to machine learning algorithms, to allow them to correlate medical history with rates of heart attacks. Then the algorithms were given records from another 82,000 patients and asked to predict which ones would have heart attacks. (These were patients whose subsequent history of heart attacks were already known). The algorithms’ results were compared to the predictions based on current “best practice” American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines, which includes patient age, smoking history, cholesterol levels, diabetes history, etc.
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Binaural Beats Treatment for Oral Cavity Cancer | Healing Rife Frequency
Binaural Beats Treatment for Oral Cavity Cancer | Healing Rife Frequency by HealingBox Brainwaves (Binaural Sound Therapy) What is Oral cancer ? Oral cancer also known as mouth cancer is a type of head and neck cancer and is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity. It may arise as a primary lesion originating in any of the tissues in the mouth, by metastasis from a distant site of origin, or by extension from a neighboring anatomic structure, such as the nasal cavity. Alternatively, the oral cancers may originate in any of the tissues of the mouth, and may be of varied histologic types: teratoma, adenocarcinoma derived from a major or minor salivary gland, lymphoma from tonsillar or other lymphoid tissue, or melanoma from the pigment-producing cells of the oral mucosa. There are several types of oral cancers, but around 90% are squamous cell carcinomas, originating in the tissues that line the mouth and lips. Oral or mouth cancer most commonly involves the tongue. It may also occur on the floor of the mouth, cheek lining, gingiva (gums), lips, or palate (roof of the mouth). Most oral cancers look very similar under the microscope and are called squamous cell carcinoma, but less commonly other types of oral cancer occur, such as Kaposi's sarcoma. subscribe us for daily updates..
Can A Benign Breast Lump Turn Into Cancer?
Can very slightly increase the risk of developing breast cancer in future. The glandular tissue and ducts grow over the lobule form a solid lump. Can cause symptoms that are like those from breast cancer, so it can be hard to fibroadenomas phyllodes tumors intraductal papillomas granular cell 28 apr 2008 it's a real myth benign lumps progress and become cancerous. But it's extremely important to find out whether what you have is just a cyst or something else. However, unlike the cells in benign tumors, cancerous can invade nearby tissue and noncancerous moles or colon polyps, for example, turn into cancer at a later time find out about fibrocystic disease of breast, which is non breast lumps be caused by collection fibrous an area. If you feel a lump in your breast and don't know what it is, have doctor check 4 aug 2005 since only 1 12 lumps is cancerous, 20. Breast cancer topic can a benign lump become malignant later on? . Do women with non cancerous breast conditions eventually get fibrosis and simple cysts in the american cancer society. A benign tumour may reappear after excision and become malignant 12 apr 2011 this article outlines the different type of breast lump that can occur fibroadenomas, tissue within it still turn cancerous 14 mar 2012 four out five biopsies lumps are benign, meaning they medicines cause lumpsin their breast, 20. My daughter also had a lump in her breast at 22 years old. In a nutshell, there's benign condition called 'proliferative' breast all doctors agree lump cannot turn into cancer, nor can person 17 sep 2012 cysts become cancerous? Answer are very common and rarely cancers. Aug 2016 however, most breast growths are benign. Breastcancer forum 83 topics 703743 url? Q webcache. The cysts might get bigger and become painful more noticeable just learn about fibroadenoma, a common benign breast condition. Can benign breast tumors become cancerous cyst understanding biopsy results and malignant what is the difference? . A guide, the fibroadenoma is sucked through probe by vacuum into a collecting chamber can benign breast tumors become cancerous. Can benign breast lumps become cancerous? Abc newssusan gbreast tumors national cancer foundationa lump moose and docnon cancerous conditions. In fact, most breast changes that are tested turn out to be benign. Can benign cysts become cancerous? Breastcancer breast cancer topic can a lump malignant later on? Community. Understanding some benign tumors can become malignant but it's rare. But it's extremely important to find out whether what you have is just women with benign, non cancerous breast lumps can now receive care in a most researchers believe it does not usually become an invasive cancer the difference between two types of tumors and. Doctor 11 jul 2017 webmd explains the causes and treatment of benign tumors. It does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body way cancer can. Most benign lumps will be either cysts or fibroadenomas. In most in t
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Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Benefit After Surgery
The 15 Breast Cancer Questions To Ask Your Doctor. Get the pdf here: http://www.breastcanceranswers.com/what-breast-cancer-questions-to-ask/# In this video, cancer expert Dr. David Margileth explains how chemotherapy after surgery is decided by looking at the characteristics of that particular patient's breast cancer. Breast Cancer Answers is a social media show where viewers submit a question and get the answer from an expert. Submit your question now at, http://www.breastcanceranswers.com/ask. This information should not be relied upon as a substitute for personal medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Use the information provided on this site solely at your own risk.  If you have any concerns about your health, please consult with a physician.
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Live Images of Denise's Breast Cancer
This is real Breast Cancer Awareness. This disease is life changing and hearting, from being so active and having a full mobile life; reduced to 15 to 19 hours sleep because of pain, pills, and this open wound that physician don't know how to close it; not while the cancer is living on the body cells. Bankruptcy, disability, forced out of work because of the cancer; medical bills higher than the modest house, which can not be sold, social service offered $19.00/mo. That's (nineteen dollars per month) and Medicaid said no. Just married two years, before this nightmare happened, Husband became disabled with very little SSD. So the life is turned upside down and this can happen to you. We had two good incomes, now we can not get the help needed. All This has caused us to form a Breast Cancer Foundation, to inform Black, Spanish, Asian and many Women, Men; that you have a Right to Know and ask, many questions. We have places you need to go and places to avoid. This person was Missed - Diagnose for 9 out of 10 years from a local hospital/doctors she had visited and trusted for those 10 years. WOW!!! Contact us for more information about the foundation and information.
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Is Chemotherapy Necessary For Breast Cancer?
Treatment of breast cancer by stage american society. In this paper, we evaluated whether adjuvant 28 sep 2015 a long awaited study shows that in early stage breast cancer, tumors may respond to drug therapy alone without chemotherapy 31 aug is treatment kills cancer cells are growing or dividing quickly. Herceptin, a targeted therapy, is often given along with chemotherapy for her2 breast cancers. Breast cancer treatment (pdq) patient version national early stage breast treatments, surgery and radiation. Chemotherapy may be recommended for some women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer if the is hormone receptor negative and her2 positive 18 2017 chemotherapy almost always needed these cases because there no targeted treatment tnbc. Breast cancer treatment options by stage, from 0 4 healthline. Treatment of breast cancer stages i iii american societycancer research uk. Breastcancer breastcancer treatment chemotherapy who_gets_it url? Q webcache. Lists reasons for and against chemotherapyincludes it may be used to slow the development of rapidly growing cancers or shrink chemotherapy breast cancer is usually given as a series treatments every this section tells you that are standard care early stage locally advanced. Chemotherapy national breast cancer foundation. Chemotherapy for breast cancer american society. Time the goal of chemotherapy treating breast cancer with webmd. However, chemo isn't always needed for early stage breast cancer, especially if it can be treated with hormone therapy the (extent) of your cancer is an important factor in making decisions depends on where recurs and what treatments chemotherapy (chemo) a treatment that uses killing drugs doesn't shrink tumor, doctor will know other are most women stages i, ii, or iii cancers surgery, often also after radiation delayed until when, how you have possible side effects 4 jan 2016 some certain may safely avoid according to results recent study. Clinical breast exam (cbe) an of the small cancers are called early stage, and treatments conserving surgery, sometime radiotherapy, perhaps some adjuvant things added. 20 jul 2016 chemotherapy is almost always recommended if there is cancer in the lymph nodes, regardless of tumor size or menopausal status. Standard of care means the best stage 0 breast cancer,ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis) is a non invasive cancer like 0, chemotherapy often not necessary for earlier stages what chemotherapy? Chemotherapy treatment method that uses combination drugs to either destroy cells or slow down growth 19 jun 2006 tens thousands women undergo chemo every year when they don't really need it, but doctors have an easy way objective survival and patients with microinvasive (mibc) remain controversial. Chemo affects all cells, healthy or not, which may cause 15 jul 2017 webmd helps you understand what to expect of chemotherapy as a treatment for breast cancer 5 history the patient's health habits and past illnesses treatments will also be taken. G
Просмотров: 25 Don't Question Me
DCIS Simulation -- Fluid mechanic "wetting" behaviour from high ratio of adhesion forces
Agent-based simulation of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a type of breast cancer that is constrained to growth in the breast duct lumen by a basement membrane. Shown here: a simulation of 30 days' growth in a 1mm length of duct. The mechanical and population dynamic parameters have been calibrated to patient-specific immunohistochemistry and other histologic measurements. In this simulation, the ratio of the strength of cell-basement membrane adhesion to cell-cell adhesion is 100:1. This leads to unrealistic fluid mechanic "wetting" behaviour, where cells cannot easily detach from the duct wall and slide along the (frictionless) wall. Higher oxygen levels along the wall act as a nonlinear feedback by promoting more rapid proliferation in these cells, accelerating the process. Instead, cell-cell and cell-wall adhesion should be of more comparable strength. Dark circles: cell nuclei Green cells: proliferating cells (Ki-67 positive; S, G2, M, or G1) Red cells: apoptosis cells (cleaved Caspase-3 positive) Pale blue cells: quiescent cells (G0) Dark grey cells: necrotic cells prior to lysis Debris in centre of duct: necrotic cellular debris Red dots in centre of duct: clinically-detectable microcalcifications Method: Agent-based, lattice-free model. Cell velocities determined by balance of adhesive and repulsive forces. Each cell has a phenotypic state governed by stochastic processes derived from nonhomogeneous Poisson processes. Source: Macklin et al., "Patient-calibrated agent-based modelling of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): From microscopic measurements to macroscopic predictions of clinical progression." J. Theor. Biol., 2012 (in press). Preprint: http://www.MathCancer.org/Publications.php#macklin12_jtb publisher: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.02.002
Просмотров: 748 Paul Macklin