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Methylation Variants in the Vitamin D Receptor: Dr. J Dunn
 
01:04:48
Introduction to the Vitamin D Receptor and the effects of genetic variants in them.
Просмотров: 150 J Dunn
Vitamin D Genetics Genomics - Why Vitamin D is Not Straightforward - Dr. Jay Davidson
 
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www.DrJayDavidson.com for more info. I (Dr. Jay Davidson) explain why your own genetics make Vitamin D more complex then just taking vitamin D supplementation. There are multiple factors to consider with Vitamin D such as: sunshine conversion ability, Vitamin D transport, multiple activation steps, break down of Vitamin D and cell receptor response. He also explains the 3 different Vitamin D tests that are currently available. Show Details: 1:03 - Vitamin D is not Straightforward 1:05 - https://youtu.be/L12RYbeD-n4 2:25 - Vitamin D and genetics 6:40 - Example of how vitamin D works (Heather) 8:10 - Example number 2 (myself) 9:41 - Testing 13:42 - http://www.23andMe.com/DrDavidson
Просмотров: 3270 Dr. Jay Davidson
Here’s What to Do About VDR Mutations | Chris Masterjohn Lite #44
 
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Are mutations in your genes for the vitamin D receptor impacting your vitamin D requirements? There are three common genetic variants, known as Taq1, Bsm1, and Fok1. They’ve been associated with the risk of certain diseases but no one has quite sorted out what they are actually doing. It’s possible they raise your need for vitamin D. Watch this video for my recommendations on what to do if you have them. I recommend testing your VDR genes with StrateGene, which you can get here: chrismasterjohnphd.com/strategene For more information on how to get the StrateGene report, watch this video: https://chrismasterjohnphd.com/2017/12/04/know-need-care-mthfr/ You may also enjoy these other two videos I made about vitamin D testing: https://chrismasterjohnphd.com/2017/05/16/tell-difference-vitamin-d-calcium-deficiencies/ https://chrismasterjohnphd.com/2017/05/18/vitamin-d-normal-pth-high/
Просмотров: 2092 Chris Masterjohn, PhD
Naive T cell activaton and proliferation map
 
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Naïve T cells can respond to novel pathogens that the immune system has not yet encountered. Recognition by a naïve T cell clone of its cognate antigen results in the initiation of an immune response. In turn, this results in the T cell acquiring an activated phenotype seen by the up-regulation of surface markers CD25+, CD44+, CD62Llow, CD69+ and may further differentiate into a memory T cell. Having adequate numbers of naïve T cells is essential for the immune system to continuously respond to unfamiliar pathogens. Mechanism of activation[edit] When a recognized antigen binds to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) located in the cell membrane of Th0 cells, these cells are activated through the following "classical" signal transduction cascade:[2] the tyrosine kinase Lck is activated, which results in phosphorylation of the CD3 coreceptor complex and ζ-chains of the TCR and activation of the ζ-chain- associated protein Zap70 activated Zap70 in turn phosphorylates the membrane adaptor Lat, which subsequently recruits several Src homology domain–containing proteins, including phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) activation of PLC-γ1 results in the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 3,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol inositol 3,4,5-triphosphate triggers release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C and RasGRP RasGRP in turn activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade which An alternative "non-classical" pathway involves activated Zap70 directly phosphorylating the p38 MAPK that in turn induces the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Furthermore, the expression of PLC-γ1 is dependent on VDR activated by calcitriol.[2] Naïve T cells have very low expression of VDR and PLC-γ1. However activated TCR signaling through p38 upregulates VDR expression and calcitriol activated VDR in turn upregulates PLC-γ1 expression. Hence the activation of naïve T cells is crucially dependent on adequate calcitriol levels.[2] In summary, activation of T cells first requires activation through the non-classical pathway to increase expression of VDR and PLC-γ1 before activation through the classical pathway can proceed. This provides a delayed response mechanism where the innate immune system is allowed time (~48 hrs) to clear an infection before the inflammatory T cell mediated adaptive immune response kicks in.[2]
Просмотров: 2542 Thomas Underhill
Capnine, substance produced by bacteria, docks to VDR (Vitamin D Receptor)
 
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Capnine, substance produced by bacteria, docks to VDR (Vitamin D Receptor)
Просмотров: 569 maciej wrotek
Vitamin D boosts cancer treatment
 
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Vitamin D Derivative Helps Destroy Pancreatic Tumors: Researchers at the Gene Expression Laboratory at The Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA led by Prof. Ron Evans have discovered that a derivative of vitamin D helps unlock the full potential of chemotherapy treatments. - Modified vitamin D shows promise as treatment for pancreatic cancer Salk scientists find that a vitamin D-derivative makes tumors vulnerable to chemotherapy http://www.salk.edu/news/pressrelease_details.php?press_id=2051 References 1. Vitamin D boosts cancer treatment Nature 514, 8 (02 October 2014) doi:10.1038/514008d http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v514/n7520/full/514008d.html Vitamin D could make pancreatic cancer treatment more effective, by reprogramming cells that bolster tumour growth. Pancreatic cancer is particularly deadly, partly because of cells called pancreatic stellate cells, which foster an environment that favours the growth of tumours and resists chemotherapy. Ronald Evans and Michael Downes of the Salk Institute… 2. Vitamin D Receptor-Mediated Stromal Reprogramming Suppresses Pancreatitis and Enhances Pancreatic Cancer Therapy Cell Volume 159, Issue 1, p80–93, 25 September 2014 http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(14)01033-2 Highlights •VDR is a master transcriptional regulator in pancreatic stellate cells •VDR ligands suppress pancreatitis •Stromal VDR activation overcomes chemotherapeutic drug resistance •VDR ligand plus gemcitabine enhances survival in a PDA mouse model Summary The poor clinical outcome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is attributed to intrinsic chemoresistance and a growth-permissive tumor microenvironment. Conversion of quiescent to activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) drives the severe stromal reaction that characterizes PDA. Here, we reveal that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in stroma from human pancreatic tumors and that treatment with the VDR ligand calcipotriol markedly reduced markers of inflammation and fibrosis in pancreatitis and human tumor stroma. We show that VDR acts as a master transcriptional regulator of PSCs to reprise the quiescent state, resulting in induced stromal remodeling, increased intratumoral gemcitabine, reduced tumor volume, and a 57% increase in survival compared to chemotherapy alone. This work describes a molecular strategy through which transcriptional reprogramming of tumor stroma enables chemotherapeutic response and suggests vitamin D priming as an adjunct in PDA therapy.
Просмотров: 446 Stefano Di Criscio
1DB1 Crystal structure of the nuclear receptor for vitamin D complexed to vitamin D
 
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Gene Regulation Кристаллическая структура рецептора витамина D. The crystal structure of the nuclear receptor for vitamin D bound to its natural ligand http://marinky.com/tag/modeli-molekul/ http://marinky.com/kristally/
Просмотров: 161 Marina Pakovna
Vitamin D Has A Significant Effect On 229 Genes, Supporting Its Disease Preventing Potential
 
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http://preventdisease.com/news/10/082710_vit_D_229_genes.shtml Vitamin D Has A Significant Effect On 229 Genes, Supporting Its Disease Preventing Potential Vitamin D has a significant effect on at least 229 genes some of which have been associated with Crohn’s disease and type 1 diabetes, according to UK and Canadian researchers. The research, published in Genome Research, found 2776 ‘binding sites’ where vitamin D attached to the genome, many of which were concentrated around genes that have been linked to autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis and diseases such as colorectal cancer and lymphocytic leukaemia. The researchers said the findings backed the role of vitamin D in maintaining health in a world where one billion people are estimated to be vitamin D deficient due to either diet or lack of sunlight. "There is now evidence supporting a role for vitamin D in susceptibility to a host of diseases,” said lead author Dr Sreeram Ramagopalan from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics. “Vitamin D supplements during pregnancy and the early years could have a beneficial effect on a child's health in later life. Some countries such as France have instituted this as a routine public health measure.” The researchers isolated fragments of DNA bound to vitamin D receptors (VDRs), treated them with vitamin D form calcitrol, and then sequenced the DNA fragments. VDRs are proteins activated by vitamin D that attach to DNA and influence which proteins are made from our genetic code. In this way they identified the 2776 vitamin D binding sites, which Dr Ramagopalan said illustrated the importance of vitamin D in gene expression. The research was funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC), the MS Society, the Wellcome Trust and the MS Society of Canada and conducted by the University of Oxford. "Vitamin D status is potentially one of the most powerful selective pressures on the genome in relatively recent times.Our study appears to support this interpretation and it may be we have not had enough time to make all the adaptations we have needed to cope with our northern circumstances," said one of the authors, Professor George Ebers, from the Action Medical Research Professor of Clinical Neurology, in reference to skin shade and sunlight exposure ratios. Source: ‘A ChIP-seq defined genome-wide map of vitamin D receptor binding: associations with disease and evolution’ Genome Research
Просмотров: 239 Natural Remedies
Curcumin & Vitamin D Combo: Brain Protection | PuraTHRIVE- Thomas DeLauer
 
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Curcumin & Vitamin D Combo: Brain Protection | PuraTHRIVE- Thomas DeLauer… It is safe to say that given the choice, most people would want to take steps to protect their brain function and even help to prevent Alzheimer’s and overall cognitive decline. Join Celebrity Trainer, Purathrive Advisory Board Member & Organic Foods Expert, Thomas DeLauer to discover how to reduce pain, lower inflammation and regulate gene expression. Learn how a new powerful combination of curcumin and Vitamin D has been shown to enhance the immune system and protect the brain all while providing numerous other health benefits. Find out how you can try supplementing your diet with this super blend to start experiencing the positive effects right now. Tune in to the PuraTHRIVE channel for new videos every week to help you become better-informed and remain on track toward your health and wellness goals. To learn more about the many benefits of PuraTHRIVE Turmeric and how you can order your own, visit the official PuraTHRIVE website here: www.purathrive.com?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=General Maximize Ketosis and Avoid Keto Mistakes with PuraTHRIVE's All-New Keto Balance! Click Here: https://purathrive.com/keto-balance/?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=Keto_Balance Click here to Learn more about PuraTHRIVE Curcumin Gold for Brain Health and order yours today! http://purathrive.com/curcumin-gold/?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=Curcumin_Gold Want more info on PuraTHRIVE Products? Visit the Official Website Here: www.purathrive.com?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=General Download Your Free eBook here and Unlock the Power of Turmeric! https://purathrive.com/ebook/?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=Turmeric_E_Book Click here to Learn more about PuraTHRIVE Liposomal D3 with K2 and order yours today! http://purathrive.com/d3/?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=D3_with_K2 Order Purathrive's Organic Liposomal Turmeric Extract Drops Here: http://purathrive.com/products/turmeric/index.php/?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=Liposomal_Turmeric B12 Deficient? Click Here to Order Purathrive's Liposomal B12 Supplement Drops Here: http://purathrive.com/btwelve/?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=B12 Follow PuraTHRIVE on Facebook here: https://www.facebook.com/purathrive Boost Immunity and Lower Inflammation with PuraTHRIVE's Radiant C: Click Here! http://purathrive.com/vitamin-c/?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=Radiant_C Try PuraTHRIVE's Active B Complex! Click Here https://purathrive.com/active-b-complex/?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=Active_B12_Complex Get Healthy and Promote Better Gut Health with PuraTHRIVE's Liposomal Probiotic: Click Here! https://purathrive.com/rhamnosus-probiotic/?AFFID=362117&utm_source=youtube&utm_campaign=CurcuminVitaminDCombo&utm_medium=Probiotic
Просмотров: 810 PuraTHRIVE
How your DNA is linked to Vitamin D
 
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How does your DNA affect your Vitamin D intake and what does that mean? Transcript: hi again my name is Yusufa and i'm the CEO of AthGene, welcome to another episode of genes behind the scenes so today we're going to talk about vitamin D and not just vitamin D in general terms but more specifically how your DNA is linked to your requirements of vitamin D. But first things first what is vitamin D and why is it even important. Vitamin D is produced in the skin from cholesterol as well as sunlight and it's very essential for lots of physiological processes such as bone health, your immune system as well as your general ability to absorb essential nutrient. So all things considered I would say vitamin D is pretty important. But here's the thing some of us require more vitamin D than others simply because our bodies don't have a good uptake of vitamin D. So for most people with a vitamin D deficiency the signs can be really subtle and really easy to miss. I mean it can include things like you know, just generally feeling a bit more tired as well as not feeling you know like your usual self. Feeling slightly down and you may have already made the connection between the typical lack of sunlight during the winter months as well as a higher report of people feeling less than their usual selves during these winter months. And that's because they could be genetically predisposed for having a low uptake of vitamin D. And when you couple that factor with sort of the general lack of sunlight in the winter months this could mean that people feeling like crap to put it in no other way. So it does not have to be this way there is something that you can do about this now. If you're based in Europe the EU has a recommended sort of a dosage of how much vitamin A people should have. If you're in the US the FDA has a different recommendation but there is a recommendation of how much vitamin D we should have and some of us are not getting it. Simply because maybe we have a low uptake of vitamin D and then some other factors like we're not getting enough from food etc. Here's what you can do about it. By simply understanding what your vitamin D deficiency levels are you could take precautionary measures such as eating certain kinds of foods. Just to give you some ideas you could eat fish, eggs, even fish eggs if that's your thing and you can also get smaller amounts of vitamin D from other kinds of foods such as chicken as well as dairy products. So in conclusion if you or someone you care about have not felt yourself or you've noticed the days are less productive, less active or just overall feeling less than your usual self particularly during the winter months, perhaps it could just be that you have a low vitamin D uptake. So I would certainly go and get that checked out! Thank you for your time again Yusufa here from AthGene and this is another episode of genes behind the scenes. See you in the next episode
Просмотров: 235 AthGene
HOW TO AVOID THE FLU NATURALLY | Science based
 
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Dr. Zyrowski's Information Packed Website: http://bit.ly/2mHgoaC Naturally avoiding the flu is easy to do. I have done it year after year with no flu shot and you can too. Let’s face it though; getting the flu is not a death sentence. Sure it’s uncomfortable, but we shouldn’t be hiding behind closed doors or afraid to come in contact with other people simple because we have the flu. Keeping your immune system strong and healthy is the best way to combat the flu. You see, most people get the flu around the holiday season. This is typically the time of extreme weather. In some parts of the world, it is extremely rainy, cold, hot…but equally, everyone gets the flu. If you blame getting the flu on the cold temperature, then you might be scratching your head at this point, wondering why people in 80º Hawaii also are getting the flu. A major thing that all the world happens to do around this time of the year is celebrate. We celebrate Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Years. Each one of these holidays requires us to attend at least one party each. And as a result, we get a lack of sleep and wear down our bodies. And, let’s face it: with all the shopping trips and late night parties, extra financial stress and expectations, our bodies are on overdrive. Reversing these poor lifestyle choices and making a conscious effort to make better, health-enhancing decisions like the ones listed below can improve your immune system function and help you naturally avoid the flu. T-Cells are the cells that actively participate in the immune response. There are many studies that show that T-cells go down (immune system decreases) and inflammatory cytokines go up when we are sleep deprived. Studies also show that we have an increased risk of bacterial infections when we don’t get enough sleep. This is why we are at a greater risk of getting the flu with a lack of sleep. Make sure you are getting the optimal 7-8 hours of sleep at night, and don’t be afraid to catch a nap on a relaxing Sunday afternoon. There is an abundance of data to support the lack of sun exposure during the winter decreases our vitamin D levels, making us more susceptible to the flu. Vitamin D is essential in immune system function. It is a core raw material that the immune system uses to operate correctly. There are receptors on the immune cell that require the attachment of vitamin D to produce Anti-Microbial Proteins (AMP). These AMP’s are anti-virals and kill the flu virus. Vitamin D up-regulates genetic expression of effectors that attack viruses, bacteria, and antigens. Do yourself a favor and load pack more fruits and vegetables on your plate. Antioxidants are a key player in boosting the immune system. Antioxidants protect against free radical damage and reduce inflammation in the body. You can find high doses of these free radical fighters in fresh organic vegetables and fruit, cage-free eggs, and grass-fed meats. Specifically, look for green leafy vegetables that are rich in color. To naturally avoid the flu, you have to remove the elephant in the room: sugar. Sugar is directly responsible for decreasing immune function and impairing your nervous system. Be cautious of sweetened drinks, refined carbohydrates that turn to sugar in the body, and of course the obvious, desserts and candy. During the holidays, we all get a little more busy and stressed, and fail to make it to the gym. A study presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise showed us that exercise changed the T-cells into a more disease-fighting state and improved circulation of T-cells throughout the blood. As reported in Medical News Today, exercise increases the release of growth hormone, allowing our bodies to heal faster, which ultimately boosts our immune system. At the end of the day, if we get the flu, experience a fever, ad stay up all night vomiting, this just our body expressing health. I say that because, if our bodies were sick and we didn’t vomit out the bad stuff, burn off the bacteria, or react in any way, we would die. Modern healthcare leads us to believe the flu is a scary, dangerous thing, but it’s been around for years and is not going anywhere. For those few elect that choose to follow the above guidelines, you can kiss your flu days goodbye and enjoy the holiday season in good health. Full article on how to avoid the Flu: https://nuvisionexcel.com/naturally-avoid-the-flu/ Don't forget to subscribe ▻▻ https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsHqu8IYwBjNLYk2MrNIxuw Follow me :) Instagram | http://instagram.com/nuvisionexcel Blog | http://www.nuvisionexcel.com Facebook | http://www.facebook.com/NuVisionExcel I wanna hear from you! Dr. Nick Zyrowski 48864 Romeo Plank Rd. Macomb, MI 48044 #flu #stoptheflu #avoidtheflu
Просмотров: 890 Dr. Nick Zyrowski
Vitamin D Inhibits Inflammation
 
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A study published in March of 2011 showed that low levels of vitamin D failed to inhibit the inflammatory cascade and that normal levels did. Levels of inflmamatory cytokines, interlukin 6 and TNF-alpha, correlated with low levels of vitamin D. The vitamin D receptor binds to DNA directly and activates a gene, MKP-1, which quiets the inflammatory response. It could be that chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, arthritis, and even cancer could benefit from maintaining a normal vitamin D level. For more information please visit www.doctorsaputo.com
Просмотров: 1639 DoctorSaputo
Vitamin D kills the flu virus so STOP BLOCKING OUR SUNLIGHT !
 
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Did you know JP-8 jet fuel exposure suppresses the immune response to viral infections?- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19022873?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed So why are they spraying chemtrails or chemical contrails which block out natural sunlight? WHY are they doing this? If the World Health Organisation were so concerned about the swine flu pandemic they would be aware that natural sunlight is a very good source for the body to make vitamin D and would be concerned about the artificial cloud covering which is being created by aircraft now worldwide. My first videos in April 2009 started with the heavy chemtrail spraying in my area showing blue skies turn a hazy white blocking out the sun for the rest of the day. I know from users who contact me that there is a 24/7 campaign of chemical spraying in the atmosphere in the USA. From my research I found that chemicals could be added to aviation fuel. Please see my video: CHEMTRAILS CHEMICALS ADDED TO AVIATION FUEL GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT NOW ONLINE- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gIPgdZcQUws For the DEFRA documents. DEFRA says chemicals added to aviation fuel can be a cost effective way to spray a so-called protective screen as to block out the suns rays and reduce global warming. ( This however would have an opposite effect. Please look up Global Dimming and the Hydrological Cycle on Google. ) BUT, is this really about protecting the earth or is it about stopping you receiving natural sunlight and making vitamin D? Vitamin D is important for helping the immune system fight the flu virus. One reason why the flu may be more contagious in the winter time is because of the lack of sunlight. The lack of sunlight prevents our skin from producing sufficient levels of vitamin D. There is now documented evidence about the roles of solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D in reducing case-fatality rates from the 1918-1918 influenza Pandemic in EU. I quote: There are two mechanisms whereby vitamin D can reduce the risk of death once the pandemic influenza virus infection took hold: reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced risk of bacterial pneumonia. The type of vitamin D which can fight viruses can ONLY be made from natural sunlight. It is known as D3, which is made from sunlight when 7-dehydrocholesterol in our skin reacts with UV light. I quote: It is then twice activated in the liver and kidney to make 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This attaches to receptors on genes that control their expression, which turn protein production on or off. Vitamin D regulates the expression of more than 1,000 genes throughout the body. They include genes in macrophages, cells in the immune system that, among other things, ATTACK AND DESTROY VIRUSES. A report in The Washington Post on August 3rd 2009 says: Millions of Children In U.S. are Found to Be Lacking Vitamin D- http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/08/02/AR2009080202114.html There are articles documenting that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight before immunization suppresses systemic as well as local immune responses- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19450899?ordinalpos=6&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum Which mean the vaccination doesnt work so well as a unsuppressed immune response is needed to build up anti-bodies and immunity to that particular vaccine. So another reason to block out the natural sunlight. If our governments were so concerned about the swine flu surely they would put a stop to these climate change experiments which blocks out everyones natural sunlight. The fact that they or the media will not even report on the chemtrails happening above us only leads me to be more suspicious of what the chemical spraying is really about. Epidemic Influenza And Vitamin D- http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/51913.php Repeated Aerosol-vapor JP-8 Jet Fuel Exposure Affects Neurobehavior and Neurotransmitter Levels in a Rat Model- http://www.scribd.com/doc/17102227/Baldwin-Figueredo-Wright-Wong-Witten-2007 This video is a re-upload from tarot1984s channel- http://www.youtube.com/user/tarot1984
Просмотров: 177869 91177info
What is Vitamin D?
 
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Information about Vitamin D.
Просмотров: 140 harvestdrugandgift
Rhonda Patrick at Orthomolecular Medicine Congress in Bussum, Netherlands (Keynote Oct. 3rd, 2015)
 
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In this video recorded Oct. 3rd, 2015, Dr. Rhonda Patrick delivers the keynote lecture at the Orthomolecular Medicine Congress in Bussum, Netherlands (MBOG Congres 2015). Discussion includes how micronutrient inadequacies are very prevalent, and how her mentor, Dr. Bruce Ames, found that the body does a strategic rationing so that those proteins and enzymes in the body which are essential for short-term survival get their share of vitamins and minerals at the expense of other proteins and enzymes that are essential for long-term survival. This results in insidious types of damage and may lead to diseases of aging such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. She also discusses her ongoing clinical research on the role of DNA damage in cancer and aging and how her data shows that obese individuals have much more DNA damage than lean individuals, her recent research on how vitamin D is needed to produce serotonin in the brain and how this may be relevant for the prevention of autism because serotonin shapes the structure and wiring of the developing fetal brain. Finally, she talks about her research on how omega-3 fatty acids regulate serotonin release from neurons and receptor function and how vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids are important to prevent brain dysfunction particularly in individuals that have gene polymorphisms in the serotonin pathway that predispose them to low serotonin. ▶︎ Join my weekly newsletter: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/?sendme=nutrigenomics ▶︎ Crowdfund more videos: http://www.patreon.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=foundmyfitness ▶︎ Subscribe to the podcast: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/foundmyfitness/id818198322 ▶︎ Twitter: http://twitter.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/foundmyfitness
Просмотров: 27414 FoundMyFitness
Vitamin D . Rickets - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
 
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Dr. Ebraheim’s educational animated video explains about the Importance of vitamin D for bone health. Vitamin D is an essential vitamin needed for normal calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Unfortunately, over 100 million Americans including children have a vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D is important for proper maturation and development of bone. The importance of vitamin D is also discussed in immunity, cancer and other conditions. Some people claim vitamin D to be a miracle hormone. vitamin D is essential for strong bones, because it helps the body use calcium from the diet. The man action of vitamin D is absorption of calcium and phosphate from the intestine. Where does vitamin D come from? vitamin D comes from diet and exposure to the sun. vitamin D is naturally found in fish. Both vitamin D from diet and converted by sunlight are not biologically active and needs to be activated before achieving all of its functions. What foods are rich in vitamin D? 1-cod liver oil, best source but it tastes bad. 2-Fish such as salmon, tuna, swordfish, and oysters (need to eat a lot to meet the required amount) 3-Ham, salami, sausages 4-Fortified cereals 5-Mushrooms 6-Eggs 7-Dairy products such as milk and cheese (not a lot of vitamin D) 8-Supplements •Cod liver oil (3.5 oz): 8500 international units (very good source) •Raw herring (3.5 oz ): 900 international units •Salmon (3.5 oz) : 600 international units •Multivitamin: 400 international units •Milk ( 1cup): 100 international units (not a very good source) How about the sun? known as the sunshine vitamin, vitamin D is produced by the body in response to skin exposed to sunlight. Cholesterol derived precursor ( pro-vitamin D3) is formed in the liver and stored in the skin. Provitamin D is activated by ultraviolet light yet it still requires more steps for activation. 10-15 minutes per day is enough exposure for light skinned individuals and darker skinned people need more exposure. If you are in the sun for 15 minutes, you may get about 10,000 units of vitamin D. How does metabolic activation occur? Metabolic activation occurs by adding two hydroxyl groups. One is at he carbon 25 in the liver and one at the carbon 1 in the kidney. Hydroxylation to 25 vitamin D3 occurs in the liver. The big organ takes the big number-25 25 (OH)- vitamin D3. Another hydroxylation occurs in the kidneys. The small organ takes the small number -1. The result will be 1,25 (OH)2- vitamin D3. This is the active form vitamin D and works mainly on the intestines and bones. Activation of vitamin D is controlled by the PTH hormone (Parathyroid hormone) any problem with this activation process of vitamin D will lead to deficiency due to an insufficient diet, lack of sun exposure, liver or kidney disease. Dilantin impairs the metabolism of vitamin D in the liver. Once the vitamin D is activated in the kidneys, it is then carried by a carrier with vitamin D binding protein to its target tissue. The target cells have receptors and vitamin D is bound to these receptors which lead to conformational changes in the nucleus. The receptors are found in the intestines, the bones and maybe the kidneys. The primary function of vitamin D is absorption of calcium and phosphates from the intestines. vitamin D influences activity of the cells that remodel and build the bone. 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D stimulates RANKL expression. RANKL (ligand) is secreted by osteoblasts and binds to the RANK receptor on osteoclast precursor and mature osteoclast cells. Osteoclast activation stimulates bone reabsorption. In the kidneys, vitamin D helps in regulation of calcium absorption in the tubules. The parathyroid glands are on the back side of the thyroid gland. Elevated vitamin D decreases the formation of parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the conversion of 25 vitamin D3 to 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D in the proximal tubules of the kidneys by stimulating 1 alpha hydroxylase enzymes. Receptors are also found in the cardiovascular and immune systems. What are the stimuli for the release of 1,25 vitamin D? •Low serum calcium concentration •Low serum phosphate concentration •Elevated PTH levels. What are the factors that inhibit the production of vitamin D3? •Decreased parathyroid hormones •Elevated serum calcium and elevated serum phosphate. What are the net effects of vitamin D on plasma calcium and phosphate concentration •Increased plasma calcium •Increased plasma phosphate. There are three types of rickets related to vitamin D: •Vitamin D deficient •Vitamin D dependent •Vitamin D resistant. Become a friend on facebook: http://www.facebook.com/drebraheim Follow me on twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/DrEbraheim_UTMC Background music provided as a free download from YouTube Audio Library. Song Title: Every Step
Просмотров: 20281 nabil ebraheim
Vitamin D Deficiency
 
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Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin, right? That means a little sunshine every day should do the trick. A report from the American Academy of Dermatology in 2012 concludes that too little sun exposure is not the culprit in the current vitamin D deficiencies around the country. But first, what exactly is a healthy level of vitamin D and how can you make sure you get enough? The answer will depend on your general health. If you don't have any autoimmune problems, heart disease, cancer, multiple food sensitivities, are close to ideal weight and have normal blood pressure etc, you might be just fine with a blood level of 40 to 60 ng/ml. Most of the people who come to OVitaminPro aren't in that category and are working to regain some aspect of health. You probably are dealing one or more of the conditions listed above and so in most cases can benefit from blood levels between 70 and 100 ng/ml. So why might a person have low D levels even in sunny climates. One theory that bears repeating is the exposure to glyphosate, the active ingredient of Roundup herbicide. Glyphosate is ubiquitous in our environment now. Every person on the planet is exposed in the food, air, soil and water. A dependence on GMO Roundup Ready crops has contributed greatly to our exposure as well. I have a couple of articles on Roundup and the toxic effects on humans in Health References in OVitaminPro.com. Sufficient for this conversation is that it appears that Roundup interferes with the conversion of cholesterol to vitamin D3. It also appears to interfere with the activation and utilization of the vitamin D. This can explain why even people who live in places like San Diego, Florida and Hawaii can still have low D levels. If that is true, what does that say about people living in central and northern states? We have steadily increased our own intake of D3 and have increased our recommended supplements amounts for patients and clients over the years. We thought we were taking a lot when we starting taking 3000 IU's per day. Looking at vitamin D levels on blood tests has now become routine and that has changed our opinion of what is adequate supplementation. We now recommend 50,000 IU's one day per week and 2000 to 4000 IU's on the other six days. Don't worry about spreading out the dosage throughout the day. Taking the 50,000 all at once is fine. We get reports from people who have been doing this for some time and they tell us of a dramatic reduction in the number of colds and flus. Also if you feel a cold coming on, take 50,000 IU's per day for two to three days and in many cases that will stop the cold dead in its tracks. One clinician we know reports having put about 15,000 people on these higher doses over the years with virtually no adverse effects. They use it to support the body when it is fighting life-threatening diseases like some types of heart disease and various forms of cancer for example. A quick note on why vitamin D is so important. Vitamin D activates a receptor in the cell nucleus that acts directly on DNA expression. The products of the vitamin D nuclear activation are involved in immune balance and cancer resistance. This could be why some doctors have reported that their patients who take these large doses of D have a much lower rates of cancer, especially breast, colon and prostate. We also recommend spending some time on the Vitamin D Council website for more information. We also like the videos from Dr. Prendergast on youtube. The best approach for you is to test, treat and retest. That is to say, get your 25 hyroxy D tested, try taking D3 supplements and then retest to see what happens. Remember if you are trying to stabilize your health or regain some aspect of health, look for blood values between 70 and 100 ng/ml.
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Immunology Naive t cells activation and proliferation
 
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the immune system and the central nervous system: these are two circumstances where there is no mouse or monkey counterpart, as highlighted by the clinical trial, and this is one of the many reasons I love immunology, unlike the circulatory system, which shows homology analogy across all organisms the immune system is not so, it is a highly specific, poorly understood system far complicated than the gross machinery of a heart or kidney. When a recognized antigen binds to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) located in the cell membrane of Th0 cells, these cells are activated through the following "classical" signal transduction cascade:[2] the tyrosine kinase Lck is activated, which results in phosphorylation of the CD3 coreceptor complex and ζ-chains of the TCR and activation of the ζ-chain- associated protein Zap70 activated Zap70 in turn phosphorylates the membrane adaptor Lat, which subsequently recruits several Src homology domain–containing proteins, including phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) activation of PLC-γ1 results in the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 3,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol inositol 3,4,5-triphosphate triggers release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C and RasGRP RasGRP in turn activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade which An alternative "non-classical" pathway involves activated Zap70 directly phosphorylating the p38 MAPK that in turn induces the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Furthermore, the expression of PLC-γ1 is dependent on VDR activated by calcitriol.[2] Naïve T cells have very low expression of VDR and PLC-γ1. However activated TCR signaling through p38 upregulates VDR expression and calcitriol activated VDR in turn upregulates PLC-γ1 expression. Hence the activation of naïve T cells is crucially dependent on adequate calcitriol levels.[2] In summary, activation of T cells first requires activation through the non-classical pathway to increase expression of VDR and PLC-γ1 before activation through the classical pathway can proceed. This provides a delayed response mechanism where the innate immune system is allowed time (~48 hrs) to clear an infection before the inflammatory T cell mediated adaptive immune response kicks in.[2]Following are some major signaling pathways, demonstrating how ligands binding to their receptors can affect second messengers and eventually result in altered cellular responses. MAPK/ERK pathway: A pathway that couples intracellular responses to the binding of growth factors to cell surface receptors. This pathway is very complex and includes many protein components.[47] In many cell types, activation of this pathway promotes cell division, and many forms of cancer are associated with aberrations in it.[48] cAMP-dependent pathway: In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase) (see picture), and, thus, further effects depend mainly on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. IP3/DAG pathway: PLC cleaves the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) yielding diacyl glycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). DAG remains bound to the membrane, and IP3 is released as a soluble structure into the cytosol. IP3 then diffuses through the cytosol to bind to IP3 receptors, particular calcium channels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These channels are specific to calcium and allow the passage of only calcium to move through. This causes the cytosolic concentration of Calcium to increase, causing a cascade of intracellular changes and activity.[49] In addition, calcium and DAG together works to activate PKC, which goes on to phosphorylate other molecules, leading to altered cellular activity. End-effects include taste, manic depression, tumor promotion, etc.[49]
Просмотров: 1609 Thomas Underhill
D3K2
 
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normal immune system function and bone health, has systemic impacts far beyond this. Although it is considered a vitamin (a necessary nutrient found in the diet), vitamin D more closely resembles and acts as a steroid hormone that broadly influences physiology. Vitamin D receptors are found in more than 36 tissue types of the body, and have been shown to influence the expression of thousands of genes, including those associated with expression of detoxification enzymes.* Vitamins K and D have interdependence in metabolic functions, as vitamin K plays a role in directing calcium deposition to the bone matrix, and insufficiency may be associated with soft tissue calcification and lower bone mineral density. * *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Просмотров: 641 Quicksilver Scientific
T cell Immunity: dendritic cells and naive t cells
 
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Naïve T cells can respond to novel pathogens that the immune system has not yet encountered. Recognition by a naïve T cell clone of its cognate antigen results in the initiation of an immune response. In turn, this results in the T cell acquiring an activated phenotype seen by the up-regulation of surface markers CD25+, CD44+, CD62Llow, CD69+ and may further differentiate into a memory T cell. Having adequate numbers of naïve T cells is essential for the immune system to continuously respond to unfamiliar pathogens. Mechanism of activation[edit] When a recognized antigen binds to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) located in the cell membrane of Th0 cells, these cells are activated through the following "classical" signal transduction cascade:[2] the tyrosine kinase Lck is activated, which results in phosphorylation of the CD3 coreceptor complex and ζ-chains of the TCR and activation of the ζ-chain- associated protein Zap70 activated Zap70 in turn phosphorylates the membrane adaptor Lat, which subsequently recruits several Src homology domain–containing proteins, including phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) activation of PLC-γ1 results in the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 3,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol inositol 3,4,5-triphosphate triggers release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C and RasGRP RasGRP in turn activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade which An alternative "non-classical" pathway involves activated Zap70 directly phosphorylating the p38 MAPK that in turn induces the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Furthermore, the expression of PLC-γ1 is dependent on VDR activated by calcitriol.[2] Naïve T cells have very low expression of VDR and PLC-γ1. However activated TCR signaling through p38 upregulates VDR expression and calcitriol activated VDR in turn upregulates PLC-γ1 expression. Hence the activation of naïve T cells is crucially dependent on adequate calcitriol levels.[2] In summary, activation of T cells first requires activation through the non-classical pathway to increase expression of VDR and PLC-γ1 before activation through the classical pathway can proceed. This provides a delayed response mechanism where the innate immune system is allowed time (~48 hrs) to clear an infection before the inflammatory T cell mediated adaptive immune response kicks in.[2]The 1976 copyright act entitles fair use for non profit educational purposes and is extended under the DMCA, see title 17 section 107 of the us copyright code. my videos aren't monetized I do this for myself
Просмотров: 10753 Thomas Underhill
Vitamin D as a Modifier of Genomic Function and Phenotypic expression During Pregnancy
 
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Presented at: Clinical Diagnostics & Research 2017 Presented by: Bruce Hollis, PhD - Professor, Pediatrics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Director of Pediatric Nutritional Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina Speaker Biography: Bruce W. Hollis, Ph.D. received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from the Ohio State University and subsequently his Ph.D. from the University of Guelph in 1979. Dr. Hollis then completed an Endocrine Fellowship at The Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in 1982. Dr. Hollis was then Appointed Assistant Professor of Nutrition at Case Western and remained there until 1986 when he moved to The Medical University of South Carolina where to he is Professor of Pediatrics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. He is also Director of Pediatric Nutritional Sciences. Dr. Hollis has studied vitamin D metabolism and nutrition for the past 35 years and has been an NIH grant recipient for the past 30 years. His current work focuses on the vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Dr. Hollis has in excess of 200 peer reviewed articles in this area of investigation. Webinar: Vitamin D as a Modifier of Genomic Function and Phenotypic expression During Pregnancy Webinar abstract: Pregnancy represents a time of rapid bodily change, which include physical proportions, physiology and responsibility. Arguably, nothing during these times changes more than the requirement and metabolism of vitamin D, although from current Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations one would never surmise this fact. Do the current recommendations for the requirements of vitamin D during these critical time periods reflect emerging data? Sadly, no. The minimal recommendations by the IOM and the zero recommendation by The World Health Organization (WHO), which was echoed by a recent Cochrane Review, stating that there are simply no requirement for vitamin D during pregnancy, are contrary to expanding published data (later reviewed in this chapter) that suggest otherwise. Why these recommendations continue to be made remains unclear, but clearly not recognizing a problem exists suggests that one does not need to address the “problem.” During these dramatic times of physiologic change, the roles of vitamin D in the pregnant versus, for example, the lactating woman are quite different. In the pregnant women, we believe the primary role of vitamin D to be an immunomodulatory – rather than a calcium-regulating factor, although, it would also retain that function. Further, vitamin D inadequacy in early life is clearly an instance of the “Barker Hypothesis”. This theory states that certain adult-onset diseases might have their roots in nutritional insults sustained in the perinatal period (either in utero or in the early months of infancy or both). Clearly, conditions associated with vitamin D deficiency such as asthma, multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders would qualify. If one is reading this review to relive the past 50 years of vitamin D recommendations during pregnancy, we suggest you read other recent publications for history in this area. However, if the reader is interested in gaining new insight into the vitamin D requirements and function during pregnancy supported by recent data, we suggest you read on. Also, with regard to randomized controlled trials (RCT’s) for vitamin D, they are largely doomed to fail. The reasons for this are many and specific cases of this failure will be presented. Earn PACE/CME Credits: 1. Make sure you’re a registered member of LabRoots (https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/clinical-diagnostics-research) 2. Watch the webinar on YouTube above or on the LabRoots Website (https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/clinical-diagnostics-research) 3. Click Here to get your PACE (Expiration date – November 08, 2019 09:00 AM) - http://www.labroots.com/credit/pace-credits/2562/third-party 4. Click here to get your CME credits (Expiration date – 3 months from event) – https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/ZQ9NCR5 LabRoots on Social: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LabRootsInc Twitter: https://twitter.com/LabRoots LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/labroots Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/labrootsinc Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/labroots/ SnapChat: labroots_inc
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Dr. Michael Holick - Vitamin D Linked to Gene Expression
 
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with Dr. Michael F. Holick, MD, Ph.D. Professor, Boston University Topic: Vitamin D & Gene Expression By: Dr. Michael Holick Event date: 4/9/13 Webinar presented by GrassrootsHealth.
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What is the chemical structure of vitamin D ?
 
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The term vitamin d is, unfortunately, an imprecise referring to one or more members of a group steroid molecules. Vitamin d wikipedia vitamin britannica science url? Q webcache. Vitamin d2, now called ergocalciferol is produced by irradiation of the electronic structures vitamins d2 and d3 were studied he i molecules are flexible they can exist in many conformations solution at room there vitamin d1, d3, d4, d5. Cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus) vitamin chemical properties, physical properties and general information. 96 vitamin d2 has a molecular formula of c28h44o. Vitamin d (calcitriol) vivo. Vitamin d structure closely resembles that ofit is made up of 4 rings a, b,c &. Googleusercontent search. Vitamins are chemicals that needed by your body for good health. The iupac name for vitamin d3 is (1s,3z) 3 [(2e) 2 [(1r,3as,7ar) 7a methyl 1 [(2r) 6 methylheptan yl] 1900's that the chemical structure d was discovered and linked to development of rickets when there a shortage this. Vitamin d any of a group fat soluble vitamins important in calcium metabolism animals. They are essentially equivalent, and differ only in their side chain structure description of the chemical vitamins minerals sources. Vitamins be fat soluble (vitamins a, d, e, and k) or water (b a vitamin d intermediate. Formula the recent revival of interest in vitamin d analogues and their chemistry as a result developments metabolism function has rendered 15 d[ sunshine vitamin] medicinal by p. Ravisankar, chemistry of vitamin d, structures 13 this graphic shows chemical structures for all vitamins; Though there can some vitamins are chemically simpler than others; Vitamin d, dforms which occur in nature ergocalciferol (vitamin d2) and cholecalciferol d3). 92502 vitamin d like molecules containing the cholesterol side chain 13 cell chemical biology vitamin d metabolism, mechanism of action, and clinical applications vitamin d3 is made in the skin from 7 dehydrocholesterol under the immunity joule molecular cell neuron structure 25 2006 cholesterol is the precursor to vitamin d, and cholesterol rich foods are the exclusive sources figure 2 the chemical structure of vitamin d structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for cholecalciferol, 67 97 0, molecular formulac27h44omonoisotopic forms and structure of vitamin d all forms of vitamin d are secosteroids, sharing a close structural and functional resemblance to steroidsVitamin d wikipediabritannica vitamin d3 c27h44o pubchem. Vitamin chemical properties, physical properties and general myorganicchemistry vitamin dvitamin d concerning the relationship between molecular metabolism, mechanism of action, clinical is synthesized from cholesterol found in cholecalciferol forms structure (mpkb). Vitamin d departments of t chemistry and biochemistry, university california, riverside, calif. It is formed by ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) of sterols present in the these are known collectively as calciferol. 25 hydroxy vitamin d3 is an intermediate in the pathway leading to the production of 1 molecular formula, c27h44o2. The term 'vitamin d' itself can refer to several types of related 1 1995 asymmetric synthesis vitamin d3 analogues organocatalytic desymmetrization approach toward the a ring precursor calcifediol chemistry. 25 hydroxy vitamin d 3 cayman chemical. In 1935, the chemical structure of vitamin d 3 was established and proven to result from ultraviolet irradiation 7 dehydrocholesterol active form cholecalciferol, 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) plays an important role in maintaining blood calcium phosphorus levels mineralization bone. Children should be aware of the many compounds have anti rickets properties but only two them are designated vitamin d. Vitamin d nomenclature qmul chemistry queen mary vitamin d[ sunshine vitamin] medicinal by p compound interest the chemical structures of vitamins. Vitamin d, cholecalciferol, c27h44o, fat, 384. What is vitamin d made from? Vitamin (calciferol) chemical reviews (acs. Developing the structure and strength of your bones, you need vitamin d to absorb 17 2011 is a naturally occurring chemical compound, also known as calcitriol. Vitamin d wikipediabritannica vitamin d3 c27h44o pubchem. The activated form of cholecalciferol binds to vitamin d receptors and modulates gene expression cid 5283711 structure, chemical names, physical names cholecalciferollmst03020220bioactive or calcitriol is a steroid hormone that has long been known for its structure synthesis. The vitamin d we re dealing with is d3 (and cholecalciferol, one of its forms), and d2 (ergocalciferol). Vitamin d physical and chemical properties mineravitawhat is vitamin d? . Vitamin d 2 was chemically characterized in 1931. Structural biochemistry chemistry of important organic molecules in vitamin d structure and occurrence vitamins d2 d3 sciencedirectchemical minerals scientific psychic. Vitamin 18 2002 vitamin d some of the chemistry, biochemistry and biolo
Просмотров: 1322 BEST HEALTH Answers
Non-Calcemic Vitamin D Analogs on Human Melanoma Lines
 
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Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/, IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 2583: Antiproliferative Activity of Non-Calcemic Vitamin D Analogs on Human Melanoma Lines in Relation to VDR and PDIA3 Receptors International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19092583 Authors: Tomasz Wasiewicz Anna Piotrowska Justyna Wierzbicka Andrzej T. Slominski Michal A. Zmijewski Vitamin D is a precursor for secosteroidal hormones, which demonstrate pleiotropic biological activities, including the regulation of growth and the differentiation of normal and malignant cells. Our previous studies have indicated that the inhibition of melanoma proliferation by a short side-chain, low calcemic analog of vitamin D—21(OH)pD is not fully dependent on the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR). We have examined the effects of classic vitamin D metabolites, 1,25(OH)2D3 and 25(OH)D3, and two low calcemic vitamin D analogs, (21(OH)pD and calcipotriol), on proliferation, mRNA expression and vitamin D receptor (VDR) translocation in three human melanoma cell lines: WM98, A375 and SK-MEL-188b (subline b of SK-MEL-188, which lost responsiveness to 1,25(OH)2D3 and became VDR−/−CYP27B1−/−). All tested compounds efficiently inhibited the proliferation of WM98 and A375 melanoma cells except SK-MEL-188b, in which only the short side-chain vitamin D analog—21(OH)pD was effective. Overall, 21(OH)pD was the most potent compound in all three melanoma cell lines in the study. The lack of responsiveness of SK-MEL-188b to 1,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)D3 and calcipotriol is explained by a lack of characteristic transcripts for the VDR, its splicing variants as well as for vitamin D-activating enzyme CYP27B1. On the other hand, the expression of VDR and its splicing variants and other vitamin D related genes (RXR, PDIA3, CYP3A4, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1 and CYP11A1) was detected in WM98 and A375 melanomas with the transcript levels being modulated by vitamin D analogs. The expression of VDR isoforms in WM98 cells was stimulated strongly by calcipotriol. The antiproliferative activities of 21(OH)pD appear not to require VDR translocation to the nucleus, which explains the high efficacy of this noncalcemic pregnacalciferol analog in SK-MEL-188b melanoma, that is, VDR−/−. Therefore, we propose that 21(OH)pD is a good candidate for melanoma therapy, although the mechanism of its action remains to be defined. Add tags (Currently: # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis)
Vitamin D and Endometrium
 
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Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/, : A Systematic Review of a Neglected Area of Research International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19082320 Authors: Greta Chiara Cermisoni Alessandra Alteri Laura Corti Elisa Rabellotti Enrico Papaleo Paola Viganò Ana Maria Sanchez Growing evidence supports a role of vitamin D (VD) in reproductive health. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in the ovary, endometrium, and myometrium. The biological actions of VD in fertility and reproductive tissues have been investigated but mainly using animal models. Conversely, the molecular data addressing the mechanisms underlying VD action in the physiologic endometrium and in endometrial pathologies are still scant. Levels of VDR expression according to the menstrual cycle are yet to be definitively clarified, possibly being lower in the proliferative compared to the secretory phase and in mid-secretory compared to early secretory phase. Endometrial tissue also expresses the enzymes involved in the metabolism of VD. The potential anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of VD for the treatment of endometriosis have been investigated in recent years. Treatment of ectopic endometrial cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 could significantly reduce cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses. An alteration of VD metabolism in terms of increased 24-hydroxylase mRNA and protein expression has been demonstrated in endometrial cancer, albeit not consistently. The effect of the active form of the vitamin as an anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and differentiation-inducing agent has been demonstrated in various endometrial cancer cell lines. Add tags (Currently: Medicine, #MedicinebyAlexandrosSfakianakis, # Ola by Sfakianakis G. Alexandros)
Vaccination Fraud - VITAMIN D KILLS H1N1 and NO SCIENTIFIC PROOF FLU VACCINES WORK
 
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I just had the flu, and along with home made Ginger tea to fight the sore throat, i ate lots of Garlic. After 3-4 days I was as good as new. I have been saying this for years and Dr Mercola explains it perfectly. High doses of Vitamin D3 kills the flu. The governments keep natural medicine very quiet because there is no money in it. For example Vitamin D and D3 (which is actually a hormone) Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (Not much money can be made from bottled oxygen) The power of Garlic (too easy to grow) The use of Cannabis for pain relief and inflammation Germans found that Vitamin D increases the immune system by 3-5 times and is BETTER than any vaccine at helping the immune system beat the h5n1 (bird flu) virus. Research from PubMed: In 1981, R. Edgar Hope-Simpson proposed that a 'seasonal stimulus' intimately associated with solar radiation explained the remarkable seasonality of epidemic influenza. Solar radiation triggers robust seasonal vitamin D production in the skin; vitamin D deficiency is common in the winter, and activated vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, a steroid hormone, has profound effects on human immunity. 1,25(OH)2D acts as an immune system modulator, preventing excessive expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the 'oxidative burst' potential of macrophages. Perhaps most importantly, it dramatically stimulates the expression of potent anti-microbial peptides, which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract where they play a major role in protecting the lung from infection. Volunteers inoculated with live attenuated influenza virus are more likely to develop fever and serological evidence of an immune response in the winter. Vitamin D deficiency predisposes children to respiratory infections. Ultraviolet radiation (either from artificial sources or from sunlight) reduces the incidence of viral respiratory infections, as does cod liver oil (which contains vitamin D). An interventional study showed that vitamin D reduces the incidence of respiratory infections in children. We conclude that vitamin D, or lack of it, may be Hope-Simpson's 'seasonal stimulus'- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16959053?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSyst...$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmed Vitamin D is important for helping the immune system fight the flu virus. One reason why the flu may be more contagious in the winter time is because of the lack of sunlight. The lack of sunlight prevents our skin from producing sufficient levels of vitamin D. There is now documented evidence about the roles of solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D in reducing case-fatality rates from the 1918-1918 influenza Pandemic in EU. I quote: There are two mechanisms whereby vitamin D can reduce the risk of death once the pandemic influenza virus infection took hold: reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced risk of bacterial pneumonia. The type of vitamin D which can fight viruses can ONLY be made from natural sunlight. It is known as D3, which is made from sunlight when 7-dehydrocholesterol in our skin reacts with UV light. I quote: It is then twice activated in the liver and kidney to make 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This attaches to receptors on genes that control their expression, which turn protein production on or off. Vitamin D regulates the expression of more than 1,000 genes throughout the body. They include genes in macrophages, cells in the immune system that, among other things, ATTACK AND DESTROY VIRUSES. A report in The Washington Post on August 3rd 2009 says: Millions of Children In U.S. are Found to Be Lacking Vitamin D- http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/08/02/AR20090802021... There are articles documenting that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight before immunization suppresses systemic as well as local immune responses- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19450899?ordinalpos=6&itool=EntrezSyst... Which mean the vaccination doesnt work so well as a unsuppressed immune response is needed to build up anti-bodies and immunity to that particular vaccine. So another reason to block out the natural sunlight. If our governments were so concerned about the swine flu surely they would put a stop to these climate change experiments which blocks out everyones natural sunlight. The fact that they or the media will not even report on the chemtrails happening above us only leads me to be more suspicious of what the chemical spraying is really about. Epidemic Influenza And Vitamin D- http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/51913.php
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Buy VITAMIN D3 5000 IU - Best Vitamin D3 5000 IU by MIT NUTRA
 
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Before you buy Vitamin D3, 5000 IU - you need to learn everything there is about the best Vitamin D3 5000 IU. Vitamin D, also known as the sunshine vitamin, can be produced in the body with mild sun exposure or consumed in food or supplements. Adequate vitamin D intake is important for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus absorption, maintenance of healthy bones and teeth, and is suggested to supply a protective effect against multiple diseases and conditions such as cancer, type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Vitamin D has multiple roles in the body, helping to: Maintain the health of bones and teeth Support the health of the immune system, brain and nervous system Regulate insulin levels and aid diabetes management Support lung function and cardiovascular health Influence the expression of genes involved in cancer development. In spite of the name, vitamin D is considered a pro-hormone and not actually a vitamin. This is because the body is capable of producing its own vitamin D through the action of sunlight on the skin, while vitamins are nutrients that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be acquired through the diet or supplements. It is estimated that sensible sun exposure on bare skin for 5-10 minutes 2-3 times per week allows the body the ability to produce sufficient vitamin D, but vitamin D has a half-life of only two weeks, meaning that stores can run low, especially in winter. Recent studies have suggested that up to 50% of adults and children worldwide are vitamin D deficient. There are several likely factors contributing to vitamin D deficiency, which will be looked at further in this article. Vitamin D is produced when sunlight converts cholesterol on the skin into calciol (vitamin D3). Vitamin D3 is then converted into calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) in the liver. The kidneys then convert calcidiol into the active form of vitamin D, called calcitriol (1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3). As such, statins and other medications or supplements that inhibit cholesterol synthesis, liver function or kidney function can impair the synthesis of vitamin D. Fast facts on vitamin D Here are some key points about vitamin D. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Vitamin D's primary role is to support the development and maintenance of bones and teeth. A fair-skinned person with full body exposure to the sun can synthesize up to 20,000 IU of vitamin D3 in 20 minutes. Vitamin D deficiency is common, especially in the elderly, infants, people with dark skin and people living at higher latitudes or who get little sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency has been seen in up to 80% of hip fracture patients. 800IU of vitamin D per day reduces the risk of fracture by 20% in the elderly and decreases the risk of falls. The metabolism of vitamin D may be affected by some medications, including barbiturates, phenobarbital, dilantin, isoniazid and statin drugs. Possible health benefits of vitamin D This section looks at the potential health benefits of vitamin D, from assisting good bone health to possible cancer prevention. 1) Vitamin D for healthy bones Vitamin D plays a substantial role in the regulation of calcium and maintenance of phosphorus levels in the blood, two factors that are extremely important for maintaining healthy bones. We need vitamin D to absorb calcium in the intestines and to reclaim calcium that would otherwise be excreted through the kidneys. Doctor holding a bone scan x-ray Vitamin D deficiency in children can cause rickets, a disease characterized by a severely bow-legged appearance triggered by impaired mineralization and softening of the bones. In adults, vitamin D deficiency manifests as osteomalacia or osteoporosis. Osteomalacia results in poor bone density, muscular weakness and often causes small pseudo fractures of the spine, femur and humerus. Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease among post-menopausal women and older men. 2) Reduced risk of flu Children given 1,200 IU of vitamin D per day for 4 months during the winter reduced their risk of influenza A infection by over 40%.2 3) Reduced risk of diabetes Several observational studies have shown an inverse relationship between blood concentrations of vitamin D in the body and risk of type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetics, insufficient vitamin D levels may have an adverse effect on insulin secretion and glucose tolerance.3 In one particular study, infants who received 2,000 IU/day of vitamin D had an 88% lower risk of developing type 1 diabetes by the age of 32.
Просмотров: 2452 MIT NUTRA
Cortisol: The Death Hormone (How To Lower Cortisol Levels Naturally)
 
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Want to learn how to lower cortisol levels naturally? Cortigon is one of the most powerful supplements to lower cortisol - https://www.truthnutra.com/cortigon-yt What is Cortisol? Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone (one of the stress hormones) that is essential for human life. However, in the presence of chronic stress, cortisol levels surge to unhealthy high levels, causing a major problem and a real tangible threat to your health and longevity. Most disturbingly, recent studies have shown that chronically elevated cortisol levels are strongly associated with increased risks of dying. For example, one study showed that men with high cortisol levels were 63%, and women 82%, more likely to die than those with lower levels. Schoorlemmer RM, Peeters GM, van Schoor NM, et al. Relationships between cortisol level, mortality and chronic diseases in older persons. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71(6):779-86. The risks of dying specifically from cardiovascular disease are even more pronounced in those with high cortisol: one study found a five-fold increased risk of death, both among those with known cardiovascular disease and with people previously free of risk factors at baseline. Vogelzangs N, Beekman AT, Milaneschi Y, et al. Urinary cortisol and six-year risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(11):4959-64. High cortisol levels create havoc through the body’s systems and are associated with a long list of age-accelerating diseases including obesity, hypertension, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk, as well as increased risk of infection, osteoporosis, depression, and even neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s. (Sources: Vogelzangs N, Beekman AT, Milaneschi Y, et al. Urinary cortisol and six-year risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(11):4959-64. Noordam R, Gunn DA, Tomlin CC, et al. Cortisol serum levels in familial longevity and perceived age: the Leiden longevity study Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37(10):1669-75. Schoorlemmer RM, Peeters GM, van Schoor NM, et al. Relationships between cortisol level, mortality and chronic diseases in older persons. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71(6):779-86. Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Doyle WJ, et al. Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109(16):5995-9. Duggal NA, Upton J, Phillips AC, et al. NK cell immunesenescence is increased by psychological but not physical stress in older adults associated with raised cortisol and reduced perforin expression. Age (Dordr).2015;37(1):9748. Notarianni E. Hypercortisolemia and glucocorticoid receptor-signaling insufficiency in Alzheimer’s disease initiation and development. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2013;10(7):714-31. Popp J, Wolfsgruber S, Heuser I, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol and clinical disease progression in MCI and dementia of Alzheimer’s type. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36(2):601-7. Toledo JB, Toledo E, Weiner MW, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors, cortisol, and amyloid-beta deposition in Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Alzheimers Dement. 2012;8(6):483-9. For everyone who needs help with fighting back against that excess stress, and needs to control their cortisol production naturally, lowering it to a nice healthy level that you can easily maintain and for the good people out there who don’t want to go take drugs to achieve this, I’ve got 3 natural things that you can use today to simply, and quickly decrease excess stress naturally and get control over that excess cortisol once again. Phosphatidylserine, or PS, has been extensively studied in human research and clinical trials and has been demonstrated to be an incredible natural resource to reduce cortisol hormone levels, both from physical and psychological stress, and also helping to modulate the brain’s ability to properly balance hormone levels in the body. Cortigon is the natural cortisol control and stress relief supplement solution that will help optimize your hormones naturally. To learn more about Cortigon click through and read more on the next page. If you want to share this with friends and family go ahead and do so right now. https://www.truthnutra.com/cortigon-yt Follow Me On Social Media: Website: https://truthnutra.com/yt Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/truthnutra/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/truthnutra/ Personal Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/_christopherwalker/ Truth Nutra Products: Shop For Supplements - https://truthnutra.com/supplements Shop For Books - https://truthnutra.com/books Shop For Apparel - https://truthnutra.com/apparel Use code "YOUTUBE" For 10% Off! Find Out If You Have Estrogen Dominance - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fCBD39qf528
Просмотров: 29758 Christopher Walker
Do Vitamin D Supplements Help with Diabetes, Weight Loss, and Blood Pressure?
 
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Those with higher vitamin D levels tend to have lower rates of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension but is it cause and effect? Interventional trials finally put vitamin D to the test. Subscribe to Dr. Greger’s free nutrition newsletter at https://www.nutritionfacts.org/subscribe and get a free recipe from his new HOW NOT TO DIE COOKBOOK. (All proceeds Dr. Greger receives from the sales of his books, DVDs, and speaking engagements go to support the 501c3 nonprofit that runs NutritionFacts.org.) This is the first of a six-part video series on the latest in vitamin D. Stay tuned for: • Will You Live Longer if You Take Vitamin D Supplements? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/will-you-live-longer-if-you-take-vitamin-D-supplements) • How Much Vitamin D Should You Take? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/how-much-vitamin-D-should-you-take) • The Optimal Dose of Vitamin D Based on Natural Levels (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-optimal-dose-of-vitamin-D-based-on-natural-levels) • The Best Way to Get Vitamin D: Sun, Supplements, or Salons? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-best-way-to-get-vitamin-D-sun-supplements-or-salons) • The Risks and Benefits of Sensible Sun Exposure (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-risks-and-benefits-of-sensible-sun-exposure) Supplements (no specific Vitamin E or beta carotene): • Creatine Brain Fuel Supplementation (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/creatine-brain-fuel-supplementation/) • Garden Variety Anti-Inflammation (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/garden-variety-anti-inflammation/) • Health Food Store Supplement Advice (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/health-food-store-supplement-advice/) • Bad Advice From Health Food Store Employees (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/bad-advice-from-health-food-store-employees/) • Dangerous Advice From Health Food Store Employees (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/dangerous-advice-from-health-food-store-employees/) • Pharmacists Versus Health Food Store Employees: Who Gives Better Advice? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/pharmacists-versus-health-food-store-employees-who-gives-better-advice/) • Dietary Supplement Snake Oil (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/dietary-supplement-snake-oil/) • Heavy Metals in Protein Powder Supplements (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/heavy-metals-in-protein-powder-supplements/) • Some Dietary Supplements May Be More Than a Waste of Money (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/some-dietary-supplements-may-be-more-than-a-waste-of-money/) • Risk Associated With Iron Supplements (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/risk-associated-with-iron-supplements/) • Diet Pills Do Fat a Lot of Good (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/diet-pills-do-a-fat-lot-of-good/) • Is Vitamin D3 Better Than D2? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/is-vitamin-d3-better-than-d2/) • Infant Seizures Linked to Mother’s Spirulina Use (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/infant-seizures-linked-to-mothers-spirulina-use/) • Should We Take a Multivitamin? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/should-we-take-a-multivitamin/) • Food Antioxidants and Cancer (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/food-antioxidants-and-cancer/) • Food Antioxidants, Stroke, and Heart Disease (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/food-antioxidants-stroke-and-heart-disease/) • Treating Asthma With Plants vs. Supplements? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/treating-asthma-with-plants-vs-supplements/) • Plants as Intellectual Property – Patently Wrong? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/plants-as-intellectual-property-patently-wrong/) • Broccoli: Sprouts vs. Supplements (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/broccoli-sprouts-vs-supplements/) • Antioxidants and Depression (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/antioxidants-and-depression/) • Are Calcium Supplements Safe? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/are-calcium-supplements-safe) • Are Calcium Supplements Effective? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/are-calcium-supplements-effective) • Industry Response to Plants Not Pills (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/industry-response-to-plants-not-pills) • Resveratrol Impairs Exercise Benefits (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/resveratrol-impairs-exercise-benefits) • Vitamin C Supplements for Terminal Cancer Patients (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/vitamin-c-supplements-for-terminal-cancer-patients) Have a question for Dr. Greger about this video? Leave it in the comment section at http://nutritionfacts.org/video/do-vit-d-supplements-help-diabetes-weight-loss-blood-pressure and he'll try to answer it! http://www.NutritionFacts.org • Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NutritionFacts.org • Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/nutrition_facts • Podcast: http://nutritionfacts.org/audio/ • Subscribe: http://http://nutritionfacts.org/subscribe/ • Donate: http://www.NutritionFacts.org/donate
Просмотров: 75706 NutritionFacts.org
Fibres alimentaires, renaissance d'un concept en nutrition et santé: Nathalie Delzenne at TEDxLiège
 
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Nathalie Delzenne is Full Professor at the Université catholique de Louvain. She is a lecturer in Nutrition Biochemistry and Metabolism and is the leader of the Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group at the Louvain Drug Research Institute. She has been involved in international scientific committee (Editor for the current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, member of the Scientific Board of ESPEN, , President of the Belgian Nutrition society, former member of the Board of directors of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, former member of the Board of the Nutrition society (UK)) After a PhD in Pharmaceutical sciences obtained in 1991, and a post-doctoral certificate in Nutrition (Lausanne, CH), she performed a post-doctoral research in Paris (Inserm Unit 342) to analyze the effect of nutrients on gene expression in the field of obesity. Back at the Université catholique de Louvain, she started an academic carrier and has been involved in the experimental approach allowing to assess the functional effect of prebiotic-type nutrients, and in several international European Projects devoted to functional food. By working with prebiotics, her group has published more than 100 paper describing their effect on glucose/lipid metabolism, obesity-related disorder and inflammation. The current hypothesis is the involvement of intestinal peptides/hormones and of specific G-coupled protein and nuclear receptors in the modulation of energy metabolism and systemic inflammation by nutrients targeting the gut microbiota. In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)
Просмотров: 7078 TEDx Talks
Ray Peat on estrogen exposure upregulating estrogen receptor expression.
 
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Still image of Peat captured from: http://perceivethinkact.com/ KMUD: 3-20-15 Breast Cancer, Estrogen If you are interested in providing transcripts for any Ray Peat interviews, please head to the Ray Peat Forum to find out more. https://raypeatforum.com/community/forums/interview-transcript-projects.78/ To find out more about Ray Peat visit his website: www.raypeat.com
Просмотров: 79 Ray Peat Clips
ENVR630 - Estrogen Receptor
 
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Modeling the estrogen receptor pathway and how it is perturbed by BPA for UNC ENVR630: Systems Biology We examined the estrogen receptor pathway and modeled it by creating and performing a puppet show, which was video taped. We looked at how bisphenol-A (BPA), a man-made chemical, perturbed the estrogen receptor pathway. Under basal condition, estrogen enters the cell and binds to estrogen receptors in the cytosol. The complex dimerizes then enters the nucleus and becomes a transcription factor, influencing gene expression. One such gene that it activates is c-Myc, a proto-oncogene involved in many cell processes, including cell cycle progression and apoptosis. When over-expressed or mutated, c-Myc can become an oncogene and signal tumor growth. BPA over-activates this pathway because, as an estrogen-mimic, it is recognized by and binds to the estrogen receptor. BPA then follows the same pathway discussed above. It can cause the gene c-Myc to be overexpressed, possibly enhancing cell proliferation. The increase in DNA replication and cellular divisions heightens the likelihood of multiple mutations, which can result in cancer.
Просмотров: 1440 Samantha Tulenko
Super Important Nutrient 4 Weight Loss (backed by science)
 
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Use this tasty yet simple, cheap and effective weight loss secret (backed by science). We are not just blowing "hot air," in this video. There are real reasons why incorporating more calcium-rich foods into your diet will enhance your slimming (weight loss) efforts significantly. In fact, before I address the science, let me also disclose some proof! The way to observe in yourself if this approach works is TWO BIG THINGS! #1 - You will feel tired not long after the ingestion of these foods because they significantly up-regulate metabolism. #2 - The act of burning and increasing thermogenesis (fat burning) will result in sweating while you are sleeping. So you may suddenly feel tired or find yourself taking a nap, so do not despair. That being said, you may find optimal times to perform this type of calcium-rich food feeding. Also I do encourage you to opt for those foods very rich high in saturated fat (not a misprint). Also if there are sugars and/or honey (no problem at all). It only enhances leptin signaling! Only avoid products that are low in saturated fat or contain artificial sweeteners (because they negatively effect energy balance). You heard me right (not a misprint!) The Science: Many epidemiological studies have reported a link between calcium (Ca) deficiency and metabolic syndrome. During a low calcium diet, parameters such as lower adiponectin and higher intact parathyroid hormone levels are found. Serum nitrite/nitrate and asymmetrical dimethylarginine were significantly higher in a low calcium diet. The expression of liver produced 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, the enzyme that catalyzes the hormone coritsol is upregulated, while hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was downregulated in low calcium feeding. Glucocorticoid receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and 11β-HSD2 expression levels show a similar tendency. [1] Reference: [1] Ann Nutr Metab. 2011;59(2-4):73-8. Notes: Try foods as rich in calcium as possible, Greek Yogurt with the full fat is a good one, and even better include those that have sugar or honey--unless you do not like sweet things. A2 milk is another good source or cheese. Shifting your Diet High in Calcium - Why? It burns fat and prevents leptin resistance: Calcium has a significant effect on key players in energy metabolism, in particular leptin and adiponectin receptors. [1] Well-controlled, adequately powered trials in research and community settings appear likely to identify a modest but beneficial effect of yogurt consumption for prevention of weight gain and management of obesity. [2] Want to "super charge" or further enhance the calcium weight loss effect? Add these probiotics to your yogurt! Certain probiotics enhance the actions of fat burning, leptin resistance and reduction in the cortisol converting enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1. A probiotic that contains these specific strains will be added to the comment section. After you like our video, you can read what these are in the comments section! References: [1]. J Nutr Biochem. 2015 Aug 10. pii: S0955-2863(15)00192-8. [2]. Int J Obes (Lond). 2015 Oct 7. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2015.202. [3]. Br J Nutr. 2015 Jun 14;113(11):1689-96.
Просмотров: 564 longevitypost.com
GABA
 
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GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is produced by neurons in the brain, and functions as the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA is associated with the parasympathetic side of the autonomic nervous system, which balances the sympathetic (fight-or-flight) response. Lower concentrations of GABA have been observed in major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in the brain, and a region of the brain known as the insular cortex that is associated with emotional response.* Lower insula levels of GABA are associated with significantly higher trait and state anxiety.* GABA, as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, is one of the mediators responsible for reducing the response to fear or anxiety-provoking stimuli.* L-theanine is an amino acid found at high amounts in green tea. L-theanine supports relaxation and mood by increasing alpha-wave activity, and levels of serotonin, dopamine, and GABA in the brain.* L-theanine also has been shown to block binding of L-glutamic acid to excitatory glutamate receptors in the brain.* Glutamate receptor subtypes have been shown to modulate excitability associated with anxiety, while in depression, a hyperfunctioning glutaminergic system also may be an issue.* Continuous administration of L-theanine has been shown to increase expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein, a protein which plays a role in neural plasticity and neurogenesis. * *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Просмотров: 4429 Quicksilver Scientific
The Sun Vitamin
 
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-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/ . Make your own animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Просмотров: 31 Amna Alshaali
Single nucleotide polymorphism SNP
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, pronounced snip; plural snips) is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes in a human. For example, two sequenced DNA fragments from different individuals, AAGCCTA to AAGCTTA, contain a difference in a single nucleotide. In this case we say that there are two alleles. Almost all common SNPs have only two alleles. The genomic distribution of SNPs is not homogenous; SNPs usually occur in non-coding regions more frequently than in coding regions or, in general, where natural selection is acting and fixating the allele of the SNP that constitutes the most favorable genetic adaptation.[1] Other factors, like genetic recombination and mutation rate, can also determine SNP density.[2] SNP density can be predicted by the presence of microsatellites: AT microsatellites in particular are potent predictors of SNP density, with long (AT)(n) repeat tracts tending to be found in regions of significantly reduced SNP density and low GC content.[3] Within a population, SNPs can be assigned a minor allele frequency — the lowest allele frequency at a locus that is observed in a particular population. This is simply the lesser of the two allele frequencies for single-nucleotide polymorphisms. There are variations between human populations, so a SNP allele that is common in one geographical or ethnic group may be much rarer in another. These genetic variations between individuals (particularly in non-coding parts of the genome) are exploited in DNA fingerprinting, which is used in forensic science . Also, these genetic variations underlie differences in our susceptibility to disease. The severity of illness and the way our body responds to treatments are also manifestations of genetic variations. For example, a single base mutation in the APOE (apolipoprotein E) gene is associated with a higher risk for Alzheimer disease.[4] Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Просмотров: 113048 Shomu's Biology
What is VITAMIN E? What does VITAMIN E mean? VITAMIN E meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is VITAMIN E? What does VITAMIN E mean? VITAMIN E meaning - VITAMIN E definition - VITAMIN E explanation - VITAMIN E food. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Vitamin E refers to a group of compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols. Of the many different forms of vitamin E, ?-tocopherol is the most common form found in the North American diet. ?-Tocopherol can be found in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine, and dressings. ?-tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E, is the second-most common form of vitamin E in the diet. This variant can be found most abundantly in wheat germ oil, sunflower, and safflower oils. As a fat-soluble antioxidant, it stops the production of reactive oxygen species formed when fat undergoes oxidation. Regular consumption of more than 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) of tocopherols per day may be expected to cause hypervitaminosis E, with an associated risk of vitamin K deficiency and consequently of bleeding problems. Vitamin E has many biological functions, the antioxidant function being the best known. Other functions include enzymatic activities, gene expression, and neurological function(s). As an antioxidant, vitamin E acts as a peroxyl radical scavenger, disabling the production of damaging free radicals in tissues, by reacting with them to form a tocopheryl radical, which will then be reduced by a hydrogen donor (such as vitamin C) and thus return to its reduced state. As it is fat-soluble, it is incorporated into cell membranes, which protects them from oxidative damage. Vitamin E has also found use as a commercial antioxidant in ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in hip and knee implants to replace faulty joints, to help resist oxidation. As an enzymatic activity regulator, for instance, protein kinase C (PKC), which plays a role in smooth muscle growth, can be inhibited by ?-tocopherol. ?-Tocopherol has a stimulatory effect on the dephosphorylation enzyme, protein phosphatase 2A, which in turn, cleaves phosphate groups from PKC, leading to its deactivation, bringing the smooth muscle growth to a halt. Vitamin E also has an effect on gene expression. Macrophages rich in cholesterol are found in the atherogenetic tissue. Scavenger receptor CD36 is a class B scavenger receptor found to be up-regulated by oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) and binds it. Treatment with ?-tocopherol was found to downregulate the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor gene and the scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) and modulates expression of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). The CTGF gene, when expressed, is responsible for the repair of wounds and regeneration of the extracellular tissue lost or damaged during atherosclerosis. Vitamin E also plays a role in neurological functions, and inhibition of platelet coagulation. Vitamin E also protects lipids and prevents the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. So far, most human supplementation studies about vitamin E have used only ?-tocopherol. This can affect levels of other forms of vitamin E, e.g. reducing serum ?- and ?-tocopherol concentrations. Moreover, a 2007 clinical study involving ?-tocopherol concluded supplementation did not reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events in middle-aged and older men.
Просмотров: 2105 The Audiopedia
What is STEROID HORMONE? What does STEROID HORMONE mean? STEROID HORMONE meaning & explanation
 
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What is STEROID HORMONE? What does STEROID HORMONE mean? STEROID HORMONE meaning - STEROID HORMONE definition - STEROID HORMONE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone. Steroid hormones can be grouped into 2 classes, corticosteroids (typically made in the adrenal cortex, hence cortico-) and sex steroids (typically made in the gonads or placenta). Within those 2 classes are 5 types according to the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (corticosteroids) and androgens, estrogens, and progestogens (sex steroids). Vitamin D derivatives are a sixth closely related hormone system with homologous receptors. They have some of the characteristics of true steroids as receptor ligands. Steroid hormones help control metabolism, inflammation, immune functions, salt and water balance, development of sexual characteristics, and the ability to withstand illness and injury. The term steroid describes both hormones produced by the body and artificially produced medications that duplicate the action for the naturally occurring steroids.
Просмотров: 3512 The Audiopedia
BALANCE ESTROGEN LEVELS NATURALLY with Estro Control - Ep11
 
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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Shop for Estro Control: atplab.com/product/estro-control Helps to support/promote healthy estrogen metabolism. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Connect with us! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Website: atplab.com Instagram: @atp_labs / @atp_labsqc Facebook: facebook.com/atplab.officiel Pinterest: pinterest.ca/atp_labs -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Follow Dr. Dwayne N. Jackson: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Instagram: @drdnjackson Facebook: facebook.com/Dr-Dwayne-N-Jackson-232820300541807 Twitter: @drdnjackson Tumblr: drdnjackson.tumblr.com -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- References: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Patel S, Homaei A, Raju AB, Meher BR. Estrogen: The necessary evil for human health, and ways to tame it. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jun;102:403-411. --------- Hanna IH, Dawling S, Roodi N, Guengerich FP, Parl FF. Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) pharmacogenetics: association of polymorphisms with functional differences in estrogen hydroxylation activity. Cancer Res. 2000 Jul 1;60(13):3440-4. --------- Cutolo M, Sulli A, Straub RH. Estrogen metabolism and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2012 May;11(6-7):A460-4. --------- Boddupalli S1, Mein JR, Lakkanna S, James DR. Induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes by broccoli sulforaphane: perspectives in maintaining the antioxidant activity of vitamins a, C, and e. Front Genet. 2012 Jan 24;3:7. --------- Quesnot N, Bucher S, Fromenty B, Robin MA. Modulation of metabolizing enzymes by bisphenol a in human and animal models. Chem Res Toxicol. 2014 Sep 15;27(9):1463-73. --------- Anwar-Mohamed A, El-Kadi AO. Sulforaphane induces CYP1A1 mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity levels via an AhR-dependent pathway in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 and human HepG2 cells. Cancer Lett. 2009 Mar 8;275(1):93-101. --------- Licznerska B, Szaefer H, Matuszak I, Murias M, Baer-Dubowska W. Modulating potential of L-sulforaphane in the expression of cytochrome p450 to identify potentialtargets for breast cancer chemoprevention and therapy using breast cell lines. Phytother Res. 2015 Jan;29(1):93-9. --------- Falk RT, Brinton LA, Dorgan JF, Fuhrman BJ, Veenstra TD, Xu X, Gierach GL. Relationship of serum estrogens and estrogen metabolites to postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study. Breast Cancer Res. 2013 Apr 22;15(2):R34. --------- Sedlak TW, Nucifora LG, Koga M, Shaffer LS, Higgs C, Tanaka T, Wang AM, Coughlin JM, Barker PB, Fahey JW, Sawa A. Sulforaphane Augments Glutathione and Influences Brain Metabolites in Human Subjects: A Clinical Pilot Study. Mol Neuropsychiatry. 2018 May;3(4):214-222. --------- Rajagopal C, Lankadasari MB, Aranjani JM, Harikumar KB. Targeting oncogenic transcription factors by polyphenols: A novel approach for cancer therapy. Pharmacol Res. 2018 Apr;130:273-291. --------- Olivera A, Moore TW, Hu F, Brown AP, Sun A, Liotta DC, Snyder JP, Yoon Y, Shim H, Marcus AI, Miller AH, Pace TW. Inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway by the curcumin analog, 3,5-Bis(2-pyridinylmethylidene)-4-piperidone (EF31): anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012 Feb;12(2):368-77. --------- Frasor J, Weaver A, Pradhan M, Dai Y, Miller LD, Lin CY, Stanculescu A. Positive cross-talk between estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2009 Dec 1;69(23):8918-25. --------- Arablou T, Kolahdouz-Mohammadi R. Curcumin and endometriosis: Review on potential roles and molecular mechanisms. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jan;97:91-97. --------- Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press). 2017 Mar 10;9:153-161. doi: 10.2147/BCTT.S125783. eCollection 2017. --------- Hallman K, Aleck K, Dwyer B, Lloyd V, Quigley M, Sitto N, Siebert AE, Dinda S. The effects of turmeric (curcumin) on tumor suppressor protein (p53) and estrogen receptor (ERα) in breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press). 2017 Mar 10;9:153-161. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Просмотров: 344 ATP LAB Supplements
14. Ahern's BB 350 at Oregon State University - Lipids & Membranes II
 
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Email me at kgahern@davincipress.com Friend me on Facebook at kevin.g.ahern Highlights Highlights Lipids II 1. Trans fats arise by partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fats. Note that oils and fats are both triacylglycerols. They differ only in that oils are liquid at room temperature and fats are solid. Oils therefore have more unsaturated fatty acids than fats. Trans fats are associated with numerous health problems. 2. Carbohydrates (sugar compounds) have links to components in a lipid bilayer in an orientation-specific direction - all carbohydrates are located on the portion of the lipid bilayer that is on the outside of the cell. This is because carbohydrates serve as identity markers for cells. These identity markers function in the body's rejection of transplanted organs. 3. Carbohydrates linked to proteins make glycoproteins. Membrane glycoproteins create identity markers for cells, such as blood cell types or markers that are important in transplant rejection. 4. Proteins are essential for movement of materials across the lipiid bilayer into and out of cells, as the only compounds that freely move through the lipid bilayer are water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and oxygen. 5. Membrane proteins facilitate the movement of materials across the lipid bilayer. There are five main kinds of membrane proteins. They are a) Integral Membrane Proteins (cross both sides of the lipid bilayer); b) embedded proteins (embedded within the lipid bilayer); c) Associated membrane proteins (found near membranes, but not within them); d) Peripheral membrane proteins (embedded in a portion of the lipid bilayer); and e) Anchored membrane proteins (linked to something embedded in the lipid bilayer). Anchored proteins can be considered to be a type of associated protein. 6. Integral membrane proteins are involved in transport of molecules across the bilayer, though that is not the only characteristic of these proteins. 7. Materials have to cross the cellular membrane in order for cells to live. Nutrients must be brought into the cell and waste products must be exported. Crossing the lipid bilayer is a problem for most molecules. Only oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water readily diffuse across the lipid bilayer. 8. Mechanisms for moving materials across the lipid bilayer are Passive (= diffusion - no external energy required) or Active (energy required). The driving force for a passive mechanism is concentration driven (movement from high concentration to low). Passive methods can be 1) simple diffusion or 2) facilitated diffusion. 9. Active transport mechanisms require energy to move compounds across a membrane because they are taking materials against concentration gradients (low to high). There are a variety of energy sources, but ATP is a common one. Active transport occurs when at least one molecule is moved across a lipid bilayer against a concentration gradient (from low concentration to a higher conentration). 10. The sodium-potassium pump is an active transport system that transports sodium from inside the cell to outside of it. The sodium-potassium pump also transports potassium from outside the cell to the inside. Since both of these movements involve taking a substance from a lower concentration and moving it to a higher concentration, energy is required and this mechanism is an active transport mechanism. It uses ATP. 11. A secondary transport system is an active transport system that uses a high concentration of a molecule outside the cell to "carry" a molecule with it across a membrane and against a concentration gradient. An example is the lactose transport system which uses a proton gradient to carry lactose against a concentration gradient. . 12. Proteins on the cell surface can also act as 'receptors'. An example of a receptor that internalizes a compound is the LDL receptor, which binds to LDLs (cholesterol-containing complexes in the blood) and brings them inside of the cell. The process is called Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis. 13. Liposomes are artificial membranes that allow researchers to move materials across biological lipid bilayers. 14. Vitamin D is involved in calcium and phosphate metabolism in the body. It is derived from cholesterol and its activation requires UV light. 15. Vitamin E is a cellular antioxidant and probably protects membrane lipids from oxidation by reactive oxygen species. 16. Vitamin K is involved in the blood coagulation process. 17. Vitamin A is involved in vision thanks to its light sensitivity and a form of vitamin A is also involved in cellular differentiation.
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Membrane Structure and Transport - Kevin Ahern's BB 451 Lecture #32  2017
 
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Contact me at kgahern@davincipress.com Friend me on Facebook at kevin.g.ahern 1. Eicosanoids are compounds made from the 20 carbon fatty acid, arachidonic acid. These include prostanoids, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and endocannabinoids. 2. Prostaglandins are like hormones, but act very close to the point of synthesis. They stimulate swelling/inflammation, creating pain, uterine contractions, and the synthesis of intestinal tissue. 3. Prostaglandins are made from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases. Cyclooxygenases catalyze formation of a bond that creates a cyclic structure in arachidonic acid and adds one or more oxygens to it. 4. There are different COX enzymes, called COX 1, COX 2, and COX 3. 5. COX 1 enzymes are inhibited by aspirin and other related compounds. These compounds are called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS). 6. Drug manufacturers sought inhibitors of COX 2 enzymes to see if they could make a pain-kiliing NSAID that didn't affect stomach tissue. Several, such as VIOXX and Celebrex were made, but some of them had negative effects on heart tissue and had to be withdrawn. 7. The cannabinoid known as anandamide is made from arachidonic acid and ethanolamine. It is called an endocannabinoid in animals and acts on specific brain receptors. Phytocannabinoids are compounds made in plants, such as marijuana, that affect the same receptors. 8. Endocannabinoids are responsible for pain reduction and experiences like runners' high. They are synthesized during periods of heavy exercise. I didn't mention it in class, but the receptor bound by endocannabinoids is the same one affected by chocolate. 9. Steroids are derived from cholesterol. Cholesterol is important for membrane stability. Cholesterol is prominent in brain membranes - up to 14% of the dry weight of brain. Compounds related to cholesterol made in plants are called phytosterols. 10. Cholesterol is a precursor of two important classes of compounds - steroid hormones and bile acids. Steroid hormones include mineralocorticoids, progestagens, glucocorticoids, and the sex hormones - androgens and estrogens. 11. Fat soluble vitamins include vitamins A,D, E, and K. Vitamin A comes in several forms.(Note - this is a correction from the video lecture). They include the alcohol form, known as retinol. This is primarily the storage form. An aldehyde form is known as retinal and is the form found in vision (wrongly stated in class as retinol). Retinal comes in two forms - the all trans form and a form with a single cis bond known as 11-cis retinal. All vision arises from isomerization of the 11-cis form in the eye to the all trans form. 12. Vitamin D is made from cholesterol. It is important for calcium and phosphate absorption/metabolism and the level of its active form is carefully controlled by the body. Synthesis of vitamin D in the body requires UV light. 13. Vitamin E is an antioxidant in the membrane bilayer and may protect against reactive oxygen species. 14. Vitmain K is involved in blood clotting. 15. A lipid bilayer has a polar exterior facing water and a non-polar interior. As such, the bilayer provides a barrier to polar and non-polar substances. Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in an aqueous environment will spontaneously form a lipid bilayer. 16. Lipids in lipid bilayers are not evenly distributed. 17. There are two types of movement of lipids in membranes - lateral or transverse. 18. Lateral movements occur freely and rapidly in fluid membranes. 19. Transverse movements require enzymes for movement from one side to the other. These include flippases, floppases, and scramblases. 20. Membrane fluidity is determined by the composition of fatty acids in the bilayer's glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Shorter, more unsaturated fatty acids favor more fluidity at lower temperatures. 21. Membranes transition from more solid-like to more liquid-like over a range of temperature. The mid-point of this temperature ranges is known as the Tm. 22. Cholesterol in a membrane has the effect of widening the range of transition, but does not change the Tm. Membrane Transport 1. Lipid bilayers create virtually impermeable barriers to movement of most molecules except water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and oxygen. 2. Most biochemicals do not readily cross lipid bilayers. Differences in concentration of these materials across a membrane, create electrical or chemical gradients. These are sources of potential energy. 3. Osmotic pressure is a good example of a potential energy created by a chemical gradient against a semi-permeable membrane. 4. Four types of membrane proteins are integral (protein projects through both sides of the membrane), peripheral (protein projects into only one side of the membrane), anchored (protein is linked to a molecule embedded in the lipid bilayer, or associated (protein associating with a membrane by interacting with a membrane protein).
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#13 Biochemistry Lecture (Lipids and Membranes) from Kevin Ahern's BB 350
 
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1. Contact me at kgahern@davincipress.com / Friend me on Facebook (kevin.g.ahern) 2. Download my free biochemistry book at http://biochem.science.oregonstate.edu/biochemistry-free-and-easy 3. Take my free iTunes U course at https://itunes.apple.com/us/course/biochemistry/id556410409 4. Check out my free book for pre-meds at http://biochem.science.oregonstate.edu/biochemistry-free-and-easy 5. Course video channel at http://www.youtube.com/user/oharow/videos?view=1 6. Check out all of my free workshops at http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLlnFrNM93wqyTiCLZKehU1Tp8rNmnOWYB&feature=view_all 7. Check out my Metabolic Melodies at http://www.davincipress.com/metabmelodies.html 8. My courses can be taken for credit (wherever you live) via OSU's ecampus. For details, see http://ecampus.oregonstate.edu/soc/ecatalog/ecourselist.htm?termcode=all&subject=BB 9. Course materials at http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/bb350 Lecture Highlights 1. Steroids are compounds with ring structures that are made from cholesterol. Steroids include sex hormones (androgens, estrogens, etc.) and in animals are derived from cholesterol. Cholesterol is an important constituent of animal membranes, giving them integrity. 2. Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids form lipid bilayers, not micelles. 3. Cellular membranes are sensitive to temperature. The higher the temperature, the more fluid the membrane. The fluidity of a membrane is related to the fatty acids in it. Membranes with shorter and more unsaturated fatty acids are fluid at lower temperatures than membranes with longer and more saturated fatty acids. 4. Cholesterol "fits" into the non-polar portion of the lipid bilayer. 5. In addition to lipids, membranes also contain proteins. Integral membrane proteins project through both sides of the lipid bilayer. Associated membrane proteins are found near, but not attached to the lipid bilayer. Peripheral membrane proteins stick through one side of the lipid bilayer. Anchored membrane proteins are attached to a molecule that is embedded in the lipid bilayer. Embedded proteins are completely embedded in the non-polar portion of the lipid bilayer. 6. Animals live in widely varying environmental conditions. Fish, for example life in an environment that is cooler than most land animals. Their membranes have more polyunsaturated fatty acids than our cells do, for example. 7. Double bonds cause 'bends' in the non-polar portion of a membrane lipid. 8. Carbohydrates (sugar compounds) have links to components in a lipid bilayer in an orientation-specific direction - all carbohydrates are located on the portion of the lipid bilayer that is on the outside of the cell. This is because carbohydrates serve as identity markers for cells. These identity markers function in the body's rejection of transplanted organs. 9. Liposomes are artificial membranes that allow researchers to move materials across biological lipid bilayers. 10. Vitamin D is involved in calcium and phosphate metabolism in the body. It is derived from cholesterol and its activation requires UV light. 11. Vitamin E is a cellular antioxidant and probably protects membrane lipids from oxidation by reactive oxygen species. 12. Vitamin K is involved in the blood coagulation process. 13. Vitamin A is involved in vision and a form of vitamin A is also involved in cellular differentiation. 14. Materials have to cross the cellular membrane in order for cells to live. Nutrients must be brought into the cell and waste products must be exported. Crossing the lipid bilayer is a problem for most molecules. Only oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water readily diffuse across the lipid bilayer. 15. Mechanisms for moving materials across the lipid bilayer are Passive (diffusion) or Active (energy required). The driving force for a passive mechanism is concentration driven. 16. Active transport mechanisms require energy to move compounds across a membrane because they are taking materials against concentration gradients (low to high). 17. The sodium-potassium pump is an active transport system that transports sodium from inside the cell to outside of it. The sodium-potassium pump also transports potassium from outside the cell to the inside. Since both of these movements involve taking a substance from a lower concentration and moving it to a higher concentration, energy is required and this mechanism is an active transport mechanism. It uses ATP. 18. A secondary transport system is an active transport system that uses a high concentration of a molecule outside the cell to "carry" a molecule with it across a membrane and against a concentration gradient. An example is the lactose transport system which uses a proton gradient to carry lactose against a concentration gradient. 19. An example of a receptor that internalizes a compound is the LDL receptor, which binds to LDLs (cholesterol-containing complexes in the blood) and brings them inside of the cell.
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Cold Feet Not Just an Expression
 
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The origins for the expression "cold feet" are unclear. The phrase could have come about because that's what really happens when people start second guessing themselves. The origins for the expression "cold feet" are unclear, but the phrase could have come about because that's what really happens when people start second guessing themselves. Scientists report that the stress triggers a reaction that causes the temperature in the feet to drop. More specifically, a particular cell protein responds to a receptor that interprets the brain's signals and relocates to another area. The receptor is sending out an alert calling for the conservation of body heat. This leads to a cell structure change large enough to trip a switch of sorts in the body that starts sending more blood to the brain, heart, and lungs to help fend off the perceived attack. This results in the cold and clammy feeling of the lower extremities. Makes sense, but still not a mystery solver as to the origins of the expression since all of the science is a fairly recent discovery. The first publishing of the phrase as we know it was either in 1862 or 1896, although a similar version also appeared in a play from 1605.
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VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY LINKED TO DEPRESSION, PAIN, INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE, AND BREAST CANCER
 
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Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis ,https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ, https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA, https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/, AWARENESS, HEALTH AND WELLNESS VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY LINKED TO DEPRESSION, PAIN, INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE, AND BREAST CANCER By Dr. Mercola, via Real Farmacy, Thanks to Natural Blaze Vitamin D research continues to impress upon us the importance of appropriate sun exposure as the ideal way to optimize your vitamin D levels. Winter limits sun exposure for many up to six months of the year. During those times, your next best bet would be artificial UVB light, as UV ray exposure also appears to have health benefits above and beyond the production of vitamin D. One of the most damaging elements of standard tanning beds are the magnetic ballasts (which make that loud buzzing noise you hear in many tanning salons). If an electronic ballast is used, there are far less damaging EMFs, which provide most of the danger from tanning beds. The other concern is related to the bulbs used, as some may contain only UVA light which is primarily responsible for the tan, but doesn’t increase vitamin D levels. For much of the northern hemisphere, vitamin D production is not possible from the sun during the winter months. You must use artificial UVB light or obtain vitamin D from your diet during this time. The benefits of UVB exposure from the sun or artificial light include but are not limited to the production of nitric oxide—a compound that lowers your blood pressure. Despite its name, vitamin D is not a vitamin. It’s actually a potent neuroregulatory steroidal hormone, which helps explain some of its health impacts. It has become abundantly clear that vitamin D deficiency is a growing epidemic across the world and could be contributing to hundreds of common health problems. In fact, correcting your vitamin D deficiency may cut your risk of dying from any cause by 50 percent, according to one analysis. If this sounds too incredible to be true, consider that vitamin D influences nearly 3,000 of your 24,000 genes. This occurs via vitamin D receptors, which can be found throughout your body, and should come as no great surprise given that humans evolved in the sun. Vitamin D Beneficially Affects Gene Activity Just one example of an important gene that vitamin D up-regulates is your ability to fight infections and chronic inflammation. It also produces over 200 anti-microbial peptides, the most important of which is cathelicidin, a naturally-occurring broad-spectrum antibiotic. This is one of the explanations for why vitamin D is so effective against colds and influenza. According to a January 2013 press release by Orthomolecular Medicine,1 there are now 33,800 medical papers with vitamin D in the title or abstract, and this veritable mountain of research shows that vitamin D has far-reaching benefits to your physical and mental health. Such research has shown that vitamin D can improve: Pregnancy outcomes (reduced risk of Cesarean section and pre-eclampsia) Type 1 and 2 diabetes Heart disease and stroke Autism, Alzheimer’s, and other brain dysfunction Bacterial and viral infections Some of the most recently published studies, which I’ll review here, demonstrate how boosting your vitamin D levels can improve depression and pain in diabetics, Crohn’s disease, and breast cancer. Relevance of Vitamin D in Crohn’s Disease While previous research has associated low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of Crohn’s disease and shown that correcting your vitamin D deficiency can improve symptoms of the disease,2 one of the most recent studies3 found a “significant interaction between vitamin D levels and Crohn’s disease susceptibility, as well as a significant association between vitamin D levels and genotype.” Serum vitamin D levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with Crohn’s disease. Of the seven DNA sequence variations examined for effects, two variants showed a significant association with vitamin D levels in those with Crohn’s, and four variants were associated with vitamin D levels among controls. In short, it shows that vitamin D can affect genetic expression associated with Crohn’s disease, and make matters either better or worse, depending on whether you have enough of it or not. Vitamin D May Reduce Depression and Pain In related news, vitamin D supplementation has been found to reduce both depression and pain in diabetic women. As reported by PsychCentral:4 “The inv
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JCI : Retinoid X receptors orchestrate osteoclast differentiation and postnatal bone remodeling
 
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Retinoid X receptors orchestrate osteoclast differentiation and postnatal bone remodeling. María P. Menéndez-Gutiérrez et al (2015), Journal of Clinical Investigation, http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI77186 Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are important for maintenance of bone remodeling and mineral homeostasis. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation and activity is important for the pathogenesis and treatment of diseases associated with bone loss. Here, we demonstrate that retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are key elements of the transcriptional program of differentiating osteoclasts. Loss of RXR function in hematopoietic cells resulted in formation of giant, nonresorbing osteoclasts and increased bone mass in male mice and protected female mice from bone loss following ovariectomy, which induces osteoporosis in WT females. The increase in bone mass associated with RXR deficiency was due to lack of expression of the RXR-dependent transcription factor v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein B (MAFB) in osteoclast progenitors. Evaluation of osteoclast progenitor cells revealed that RXR homodimers directly target and bind to the Mafb promoter, and this interaction is required for proper osteoclast proliferation, differentiation, and activity. Pharmacological activation of RXRs inhibited osteoclast differentiation due to the formation of RXR/liver X receptor (LXR) heterodimers, which induced expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), resulting in indirect MAFB upregulation. Our study reveals that RXR signaling mediates bone homeostasis and suggests that RXRs have potential as targets for the treatment of bone pathologies such as osteoporosis.
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Elements of health and disease: inorganic fluxes and metal receptors
 
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Elements of health and disease: inorganic fluxes and metal receptors that control cell fate decisions Air date: Wednesday, October 19, 2016, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:11:38 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture For the past three decades, Thomas V. O'Halloran has investigated how fluctuations in the amount of metal ions inside cells influence key cellular decisions. Using genetic, chemical, structural, and mechanistic approaches, he has uncovered new types of metal receptors and tied their function to a number of disease-related physiological processes. O'Halloran identified early examples of metal ion receptors called metalloregulatory proteins that regulate gene expression. He and his collaborators also discovered a second class of metal receptors called metallochaperone proteins that govern the flow of metals within the cell. The O'Halloran lab currently focuses on how intracellular fluxes of iron, copper, zinc, and other metals regulate pathways needed for cell growth and proliferation. O'Halloran and his team have recently demonstrated essential roles for intracellular zinc fluctuations in mammalian oocyte maturation and fertilization. Using novel small-molecule probes as well as single-cell X-ray fluorescence microscopy, the research group established that the uptake of billions of zinc atoms regulates meiotic cell-cycle progression. In contrast, the researchers found that rapid zinc exocytosis events, triggered by fertilization and collectively known as "zinc sparks," must occur before embryonic development can proceed. These findings may one day be useful in improving in vitro fertilization methods. Changes in metal ion concentrations also control fundamental developmental decisions in bacteria and disease-causing parasites, as reported by O'Halloran and his colleagues. For example, the invasion of pathogens that cause fungal brain disease and malaria depends on spikes in copper and zinc, respectively. These insights into the inorganic chemistry of the cell have led O'Halloran's team to develop new therapeutic agents that selectively target metalloenzymes or harness the biological chemistry of nonessential metals such as molybdenum, arsenic, and platinum. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2016-2017 Author: Thomas O'Halloran, Ph.D., Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison Professor, Department of Chemistry, Department of Molecular Biosciences and Founding Director, The Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?19935
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CBD Oil For PTSD - CBD School Podcast #6
 
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You can support us by shopping with these reputable suppliers: BlueBird Botanicals: https://cbdschool.com/bluebird-cbd NuLeaf Naturals: https://cbdschool.com/nuleaf-cbd BlueBird Botanicals gives you 20% OFF your first retail order - use coupon code FIRSTTIME at checkout NuLeaf Discount - Use code CBDSCHOOL for 15% off your order! Go to CBD School to learn more about CBD: http://www.cbdschool.com/ The use of CBD for anxiety has been studied for over two decades now. And this application of CBD for anxiety extends to the use of CBD for PTSD. PTSD is a pathological anxiety condition caused by experiencing a past traumatic event. Common events that can cause PTSD include war, violence, and sexual abuse. Though there are countless reasons why someone might experience PTSD. CBD and other cannabinoids like THC in medical marijuana have shown to be effective at reducing symptoms of people suffering from PTSD. CBD products may be able to be used as alternatives for people with PTSD who were unsuccessful with traditional Rx medications like antidepressants. While the evidence for the effectiveness of CBD for anxiety and CBD for PTSD is promising, it’s important to be conscious of the fact that cannabis products may not be right for everyone and their situation. Future data from people, doctors, and researchers will help us to better understand the application of CBD for PTSD. There is a ton of research out there for you to dive into on CBD for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Anxiety: Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22729452 Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101100/ Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26341731 Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22979992 Cannabidiol disrupts the consolidation of specific and generalized fear memories via dorsal hippocampus CB1 and CB2 receptors: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28754373 Bidirectional Effects of Cannabidiol on Contextual Fear Memory Extinction: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2016.00493/full Cannabidiol Modulates Fear Memory Formation Through Interactions with Serotonergic Transmission in the Mesolimbic System: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27296152 The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578915/ Modulation of fear memory by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids via cannabinoid receptors: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518289 Enhancing cannabinoid neurotransmission augments the extinction of conditioned fear: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637635 Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid levels in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder following exposure to the World Trade Center attacks: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24035186 THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM PROVIDES AN AVENUE FOR EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENT DEVELOPMENT FOR PTSD: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/da.22031/abstract A current overview of cannabinoids and glucocorticoids in facilitating extinction of aversive memories: potential extinction enhancers: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22687521 The endocannabinoid system and extinction learning: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17952654 Cannabinoid modulation of fear extinction brain circuits: a novel target to advance anxiety treatment: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23829364 Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: a review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22736575 Stress switches cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor-dependent plasticity from LTD to LTP in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336729 Non-Antidepressant Long-term Treatment in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=traumatic+and+Kerbage+H Cannabinoids and traumatic stress modulation of contextual fear extinction and GR expression in the amygdala-hippocampal-prefrontal circuit: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23433741 Thanks to Martin Lee and the team at Project CBD for doing such a great job at compiling a lot of these studies I referenced: https://www.projectcbd.org/ Affiliate Disclosure. My channel and website are supported through affiliate marketing, whereby for referral traffic I receive a small commission from select vendors, at no extra cost to you. This post contains affiliate links. Thanks for your support.
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Mechanism of Action of Aminosalicylates
 
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Developed and produced for http://www.MDPracticeGuide.com, a CME resource for physicians and healthcare providers. Animation Description: This animation explains the mechanism of action of aminosalicylates used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aminosalicylates include sulfasalazine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Sulfasalazine, a sulfa drug, inhibits folic acid synthesis. As such, folic acid supplements should be taken with sulfasalazine to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Sulfasalazine exhibits anti-inflammatory properties when split by gut bacterium into its metabolites: sulfapyridine and 5-ASA (mesalamine). The anti-inflammatory benefits of sulfasalazine, are chiefly derived from 5-ASA, which has fewer side effects than sulfapyridine. As such, administration of 5-ASA alone may be preferred over sulfasalazine. 5-ASA is poorly absorbed by the intestines and systemic circulation, thus most remains in the terminal ileum and colon or is passed in the stool. 5-ASA within the lumen primarily exhibits a topical effect on the colonic epithelium. Absorbed 5-ASA is extensively metabolized to N-acetyl-5-ASA by N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1). N-acetyl-5-ASA then binds PPAR-gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) a nuclear hormone receptor. Binding of N-acetyl-5-ASA induces the translocation of PPAR-gamma from the cytoplasm to the cell nucleus and a conformational change in PPAR-gamma. This modification permits the recruitment of the co-activator, vitamin D3 receptor-interacting protein (DRIP), which interacts directly with PPAR-gamma. Heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) occurs, resulting in formation of the PPAR-RXR complex, a transcriptional regulator. The PPAR-RXR heterodimer controls transcription by binding a regulatory PPAR-gamma response element (PPRE) and modulating the expression of genes involved in the inflammation process. PPAR-RXR downregulates the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) to reduce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This complex also reduces COX-2 activity, leading to a reduction in prostaglandins involved in inflammation. Novel agents with similar mechanisms to 5-ASA, but which target PPAR-gamma more efficiently and report a reduction of adverse events, are currently under investigation. For example the compound, GED-0507-34, exhibits a 100- to 150-fold greater anti-inflammatory effect than 5-ASA. A new generation of 5-ASA, balsalazide, is able to bypass the small intestine and release a high concentration of 5-ASA in the colon.
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