This space science tutorial video explains why the oceans experience two extra large tides, called spring tides, and two smaller tides, called neap tides, each month.
This combination of the moon and sun's gravities, only align at the New Moon and Full Moon, and exaggerate the tides at these times, resulting in Spring Tides.
On the other hand, the sun's and moon's gravities don't align at the First and Third Quarter, so the tides at these times are smaller than usual, resulting in Neap Tides.
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Tides are caused by the moon's gravitational force pulling on the earth and its oceans with different strengths. 611 The pull on the near-side ocean is the strongest because it's the closest, so it moves towards the moon most. The earth also moves towards the moon, but not so much as it's further away. Finally, the far-side ocean moves towards the moon least, because it's farthest from the moon. These movements due to gravity create 2 high tides and 2 low tides as the earth rotates through 24 hours.
But there's a big object that's missing from our diagram- the sun. If we back up, we can also see the sun and how it lights up both the earth and moon into their day and night sides. In this New Moon position we can only see the moon's night side, so it's invisible to us from earth. It's right in front of the sun. As the moon completes its monthly orbit, our view on earth changes to the 1st quarter where we can see half its day and half its night sides, then to the Full Moon when we can see its whole day side, then to the 3rd quarter, before returning to the New Moon to start all over again.
Does the sun also pull on the oceans and make them bulge like the moon does?] Yes, but the sun is much further away than the moon making its tidal effect is only about half compared to the moon's.