Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: In this video, We tried to provide information about what is temporal lobe epilepsy - temporal lobe epilepsy symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Subscribe to our channel for more videos.
Temporal lobe epilepsy: Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Temporal lobe epilepsy or TLE is a type of epilepsy causing focal seizures beginning in the temporal lobe area of the brain. One or both lobes may be affected.
There may be an aura warning sign before a seizure, but not everyone will experience this.
Temporal lobe epilepsy may cause either simple partial seizures without loss of awareness or complex partial seizures with a loss of awareness.
What are the symptoms of temporal lobe epilepsy?
A seizure originating in the temporal lobe may be preceded by an aura or warning symptom, such as:
- Abnormal sensations (which may include a rising or "funny" feeling in the gut)
- Hallucinations (including sights, smells, tastes)
- Vivid deja vu or recalled memories or emotions
- A sudden, intense emotion not related to anything happening at the time
During the seizure, a person may experience motor disturbances, sensory symptoms or autonomic symptoms.
Motor or movement disturbances (called automatisms) may include the following:
- Rhythmic muscle contractions on one side of the body or face
- Abnormal mouth behaviour (lip smacking, chewing for no reason, slobbering)
- Abnormal head movements (forced turning of the head or eyes)
- Repetitive movements (such as picking at clothing)
Other sensory symptoms may include the following sensations that start in one area and spread:
- A feeling that the flesh is crawling
- Autonomic symptoms may include the following:
Abdominal pain or nausea
How is a temporal lobe epilepsy diagnosed?
If someone has a seizure for the first time, if a seizure lasts longer than two to three minutes, or if multiple seizures occur one after the other, take that person to the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) or call 999 immediately.
If a seizure disorder is suspected, the doctor will begin by taking a thorough medical history, and will ask about any birth trauma, serious head injury or infections of the brain such as encephalitis or meningitis.
Brain function can be studied with an electroencephalogram (EEG), which detects the electrochemical relay of information from brain cell to brain cell. EEGs will show characteristic abnormal patterns during different types of seizures, but results can be normal in between seizures.
Other investigations including X-rays, CT scans and MRIs of the head can help rule out specific causes of seizures.
What are the treatments for temporal lobe epilepsy?
Oral anticonvulsive medications such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, and sodium valproate may help reduce or eliminate recurrent seizures in some people. The newer anticonvulsants such as topiramate and lamotrigine can be more effective in some cases. However temporal lobe seizures do not always respond well to medication.
Many people with temporal lobe seizures respond well to surgery that removes the abnormal part of the brain. This procedure is called a temporal resection.
Vagus nerve stimulation is another treatment for seizures, which involves implanting a device under the collarbone, where it stimulates the left vagus nerve. This can result in a reduction of the number of seizures, or can reduce their length or intensity. The device can be pre-programmed by the doctor who inserts the device, or in some cases can be activated by the patient or a carer if the patient feels a seizure is imminent.
- Sweating, flushing, dilated pupils or rapid heartbeat
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