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Anatomy and Physiology: Endocrine System: Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) V2.0
 
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Overview of ANP for anatomy and physiology (no music version). Visit my site for a free A&P etext and more: http://www.drbruceforciea.com
Просмотров: 18836 DrBruce Forciea
Hormones in body fluid homestasis (ADH/vasopressin, Aldosterone and Natriuretic peptides)
 
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Where do I get my information from: http://armandoh.org/dig Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram: http://instagram.com/armandohasudungan Twitter: https://twitter.com/Armando71021105 SPECIAL THANKS: Patreon members FaberCastell Australia - https://www.youtube.com/user/FaberCastellGroup What markers do I use? FaberCastellPITTartistpens1,5 FaberCastellPITTartistpensF FaberCastellPermanentmarkers FaberCastellPITTartistpensbrush
Просмотров: 11046 Armando Hasudungan
BNP (Brain Natriuretic Peptid) Heart Failure Lab Value
 
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Nursing School Doesn't Have to be so DAMN Hard! Tired of professors who don't seem to care, confusing lectures, and taking endless NCLEX® review questions? . . . Welcome to NRSNG.com | Where Nurses Learn . . . Prepare to DEMOLISH the NCLEX. Blog: http://www.NRSNG.com Apps: http://www.RNcrush.com | http://www.Simclex.com Books: http://www.NursingStudentBooks.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NRSNG Visit us at http://www.nrsng.com/medical-information-disclaimer/ for disclaimer information. NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, INC. and hold no affiliation with NRSNG.
Просмотров: 31921 NRSNG
Regulation of blood pressure with baroreceptors | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
 
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Learn about how the arteries use nerve impulses to help regulate blood pressure. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. Created by Rishi Desai. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/nclex-rn-circulatory-system/rn-blood-pressure-control/v/parts-of-a-nephron?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/nclex-rn-circulatory-system/blood-pressure/v/blood-pressure-changes-over-time?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s NCLEX-RN channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDx5cTeADCvKWgF9x_Qjz3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Просмотров: 473732 khanacademymedicine
Brain Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Nursing Considerations, Normal Range, Lab Values Nursing
 
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Grab our free cheatsheet covering the 63 Must Know Labs for nurses right here: http://www.NRSNG.com/labs Listen to all the episodes at: https://www.nrsng.com/labspodcast/ View this post on our blog: https://www.nrsng.com/brain-type-natriuretic-peptide-bnp/ Brain Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Normal: 100 pg/mL Indications:  Identify: o Congestive Heart Failure CHF o Effectiveness of Treatment o Severity of Disease Description: Brain natriureticpeptide BNP is a hormone made by the heart. When the heart is stressed or working hard to pump blood, it releases BNP. What would cause increased levels?  Congestive Heart Failure CHF  Kidney Failure What would cause decreased levels?  N/A
Просмотров: 8298 NRSNG
Congestive Heart Failure Medical Animation
 
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Medical animation created by KO Studios for Scios to show how B-type natriuretic peptide serve as beneficial counter-regulatory hormones protecting against heart failure by working to control the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system, which can cause vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and sodium and fluid retention. ©2012 KO Studios; http://www.kostudios.com/
Просмотров: 85357 KOStudiosVideos
How does ANP lower blood pressure
 
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How does ANP lower blood pressure - Find out more explanation for : 'How does ANP lower blood pressure' only from this channel. Information Source: google
Просмотров: 12 WikiAudio4
5-SECRETS TO CURING HEART DISEASE THAT YOUR CARDIOLOGIST DOESN’T WANT YOU TO KNOW!!!
 
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5-SECRETS TO CURING HEART DISEASE THAT YOUR CARDIOLOGIST DOESN’T WANT YOU TO KNOW!!! Here they are... #1: Complete Blood Work #2: Stem Cell Therapy to repair the heart. #3: Genetic Testing....go to www.drjgeneticsupport.com and watch the video. ACE, ACT, SOD, and NOS are four very important genetic SNPs that can affect the heart. #4: Homeopathy #5: Diet and Lifestyle Changes Watch this revolutionary, ground-breaking video.... "THE CHOLESTEROL MYTH!"...https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwnWBhJ5JLc&t=96s "YOU CAN BEAT HEART DISEASE NATURALLY!"....https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NC6fvIuRi7M&t=261s "Heart Disease and Stem Cell Therapy"....https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3X_S0jHQqOA&t=785s LEVEL 1: COMPLETE BLOOD WORK….CMP, Lipid Panel, Complete Thyroid Panel, CBC with auto diff C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test: This marker of inflammation is a big clue to your overall CVD risk. “When your inflammation is high for whatever reason — maybe it’s certain foods you eat, or gut dysbiosis, or the presence of pro-inflammatory visceral fat — it can cause the walls of our blood vessels to become leaky and inflamed as well, which makes it a lot easier for the tiny, dense LDL cholesterol particles to squeeze through the cracks and trigger the cycle of plaque buildup,” says functional-medicine internist Yousef Elyaman, MD, IFMCP, the founder and medical director of Absolute Health, a primary-care practice in Ocala, Fla. Blood Glucose Levels Hemoglobin A1c Test Cholesterol/HDL Ratio Homocysteine and 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D These tests measure levels of key heart-protective nutrients. “Your homocysteine measures your folate status and should be between 6 and 8 micromoles per liter,” Hyman states. Genetic Testing…drjgeneticsupport.com Level 1 Testing is included in our care plans! LEVEL 2: BNP (B-type Natriuretic Peptied) BNP is a substance secreted from the ventricles or lower chambers of the heart in response to changes in pressure that occur when heart failure develops and worsens. The level of BNP in the blood increases when heart failure symptoms worsen, and decreases when the heart failure condition is stable. The BNP level in a person with heart failure – even someone whose condition is stable – is higher than in a person with normal heart function. Results: • BNP levels below 100 pg/mL indicate no heart failure. • BNP levels of 100-300 pg/mL suggest heart failure is present. • BNP levels above 300 pg/mL indicate mild heart failure. • BNP levels above 600 pg/mL indicate moderate heart failure. • BNP levels above 900 pg/mL indicate severe heart failure. LEVEL 3 ADVANCED LIPID TESTS: Advanced Lipid Tests: Unlike the standard lipid panel, advanced tests like the NMR Lipid Profile or the Cardio IQ Lipoprotein Fractionation look at the all-important particle size of LDL and HDL. “You should have less than 1,000 total LDL particles and no more than 400 small particles (although ideally you shouldn’t have any!),” notes Mark Hyman, MD, director of the Center for Functional Medicine at the Cleveland Clinic, in his new book, Eat Fat, Get Thin: Why the Fat We Eat Is the Key to Sustained Weight Loss and Vibrant Health. Oxidized LDL Test: This test measures the amount of oxidized LDL in the blood. When small, dense LDL particles become oxidized or rancid, they can trigger the process that leads to heart disease. Lp-PLA2 Test: Both Elyaman and integrative cardiologist Mimi Guarneri, MD, FACC, a functional-medicine cardiologist in La Jolla, Calif., recommend this test, which measures an enzyme that contributes to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) Test: This high-resolution ultrasound test identifies plaque in the arteries in your neck, which is associated with cardiovascular-disease risk. “We want to know how inflamed your major vessels are and how much plaque you are creating, so we look at your carotid arteries, which highly correlate with what’s happening in the heart vessels,” says P. Michael Stone, MD, MS, a family physician who practices functional medicine in Ashland, Ore., and a faculty member at the Institute for Functional Medicine. SUPPLEMENTS: CIRCUZYME...http://drjsupplements.com/circuzyme CARDIO ND...http://drjsupplements.com/cardio-nd-for… CARDIO-POWER...http://drjsupplements.com/cardio-power.… The Optimal Health Stem Cell and Wellness Instiute 2000 S. Memorial Dr., Ste. 201 Appleton, WI 54915 920.739.6971 Dr. Johnson's email for questions is mljohnson@askdrjohnson.com
Просмотров: 1113 Dr. Michael Johnson
Why Testosterone & Protein Peptides Reduce Aging,  Cancer and Heart Disease
 
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Delgadoprotocol.com Protein Peptide Levels reverse the Aging ProcessProtein Peptides control how well you age. Maintaining healthy levels of Protein Peptides must be sustained throughout life in order to achieve better health and reverse the aging process. Visit www.delgadoprotocol.com for more info
Просмотров: 579 Dr. Nick Delgado
The Problem with Physiology by Rinaldo Bellomo
 
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Critical care clinicians can change physiology with a number of tools. The can repeatedly, often and mercilessly change physiological variables. They can increase the blood pressure (or decrease it); they can increase cardiac output (or decrease it), they can increase cardiac filling pressures (or decrease them), they can increase glucose levels (or decrease them), they can increase positive fluid balance (or decrease it) and so on. This kind of “numerology” is attractive because the outcomes are tautological and clinicians feel powerful and effective. However, outside the obvious situations where physiology is so dangerously abnormal as to threaten life, such physiological manipulations have an unproven relationship with outcome. Importantly, patients do not care whether their cardiac output has been increased from 5L/min to 6 L/min. They only care whether they live or die, get out of hospital intact and return to their previous life. Thus, physiological gain is not patient centred. Moreover, all research focusing of the physiology of a specific intervention always and inevitably deals with the effect on a specific set of variables. For example and fluid bolus may or may not increase cardiac output for a while. Thus studies focus on identifying fluid responders for such purposes. However, no one studies the effect of such fluid bolus on anything other than hemodynamics. No one measures what the effect is on the immune system, cerebral edema, the glycocalyx, interstitial oxygen gradient, pulmonary congestion, body temperature, haemoglobin and white cell function etc. etc. Thus, all physiological studies are “blind” to the effects that their protagonists cannot or will not measure. In other words, the measurable is made important but the important may not be measured. Clinicians need to reflect on this before they become seduced by physiological manipulation.
Просмотров: 1865 SMACC
Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System
 
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This animation focuses on the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), a classic endocrine system that helps to regulate long-term blood pressure and extracellular volume in the body. Many aspects of cardiovascular disease progression can be directly linked to the RAAS system. Mechanisms such as vascular inflammation, generation of reactive oxygen species and alterations of endothelial function are all known to play a role in atherosclerosis.
Просмотров: 862484 Mechanisms in Medicine
Pressure Natriuresis: The Basics
 
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Dr. Mimi Lam, professor at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, explains the basics of pressure natriuresis.
Просмотров: 4182 CaseMed Minute
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
 
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http://usmlefasttrack.com/?p=382 atrial, myocytes, vascular relazation, diuresis, escape from aldosterone, First Aid, for, USMLE, Step 1, wiki, define, wikipedia,
Просмотров: 12076 USMLEFastTrack
Atrial Natriuretic and Fluid Shift Mechanisms
 
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This Human Anatomy and Physiology video teaches Atrial Natriuretic mechanism, along with the fluid shift mechanism.
Просмотров: 1138 BYU-Idaho Academic Support
Medical Video Lecture: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Physiology
 
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FREE FREE FREE !!! FIGURE1 medical app: Discover medical cases from every specialty their views and advice DOWNLOAD NOW  http://download.figure1.com/greenglobe Prepare for USMLE,UK,CANADIAN,AUSTRALIAN, NURSING & OTHER MEDICAL BOARD examinations around the globe with us.Understand the basics, concepts and how to answer wisely and score 99 in each step. we are here to help you. What are you waiting for subscribe now!!! SUBSCRIBE NOW: http://bit.ly/161OmbF For Business inquiries: allornonelaw4business@gmail.com Join our USMLE step 1 prep Zone : https://www.facebook.com/groups/730000020375744 Join our USMLE CK STUDY GROUP: https://www.facebook.com/groups/320959178079398
Просмотров: 7484 allornonelaw
ANP hormone and effects
 
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atrial natriuretic peptide Disclaimer: Study your highlighted notes in your text for your test (or what your teacher requires). by Darrell Barnes on February 20, 2017
Просмотров: 1468 Darrell Barnes
What is BAROREFLEX? What does BAROREFLEX mean? BAROREFLEX meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is BAROREFLEX? What does BAROREFLEX mean? BAROREFLEX meaning - BAROREFLEX definition - BAROREFLEX explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The baroreflex or baroreceptor reflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that helps to maintain blood pressure at nearly constant levels. The baroreflex provides a rapid negative feedback loop in which an elevated blood pressure reflexively causes the heart rate to decrease and also causes blood pressure to decrease. Decreased blood pressure decreases baroreflex activation and causes heart rate to increase and to restore blood pressure levels. The baroreflex can begin to act in less than the duration of a cardiac cycle (fractions of a second) and thus baroreflex adjustments are key factors in dealing with postural hypotension, the tendency for blood pressure to decrease on standing due to gravity. The system relies on specialized neurons, known as baroreceptors, in the aortic arch, carotid sinuses, and elsewhere to monitor changes in blood pressure and relay them to the Medulla. Baroreceptors are stretch receptors and respond to the pressure induced stretching of the blood vessel in which they are found. Baroreflex induced changes in blood pressure are mediated by both branches of the autonomic nervous system – that is the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Baroreceptors are active even at normal blood pressures so that their activity informs the brain about both increases and decreases in blood pressure. The body contains two other, slower acting systems to regulate blood pressure: the heart releases atrial natriuretic peptide when blood pressure is too high, and the kidneys sense and correct low blood pressure with the renin-angiotensin system. Baroreceptors are present in the auricles of the heart and vena cavae, but the most sensitive baroreceptors are in the carotid sinuses and aortic arch. While the carotid sinus baroreceptor axons travel within the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), the aortic arch baroreceptor axons travel within the vagus nerve (CN X). Baroreceptor activity travels along these nerves directly into the central nervous system to contact neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brainstem. Baroreceptor information flows from these NTS neurons to both parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons within the brainstem. The NTS neurons send excitatory fibers (glutamatergic) to the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), activating the CVLM. The activated CVLM then sends inhibitory fibers (GABAergic) to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), thus inhibiting the RVLM. The RVLM is the primary regulator of the sympathetic nervous system, sending excitatory fibers (glutamatergic) to the sympathetic preganglionic neurons located in the intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord. Hence, when the baroreceptors are activated (by an increased blood pressure), the NTS activates the CVLM, which in turn inhibits the RVLM, thus decreasing the activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system, leading to a relative decrease in blood pressure. Likewise, low blood pressure activates baroreceptors less and causes an increase in sympathetic tone via "disinhibition" (less inhibition, hence activation) of the RVLM. Cardiovascular targets of the sympathetic nervous system includes both blood vessels and the heart. Even at resting levels of blood pressure, arterial baroreceptor discharge activates NTS neurons. Some of these NTS neurons are tonically activated by this resting blood pressure and thus activate excitatory fibers to the nucleus ambiguus and Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve to regulate the parasympathetic nervous system. These parasympathetic neurons send axons to the heart and parasympathetic activity slows cardiac pacemaking and thus heart rate. This parasympathetic activity is further increased during conditions of elevated blood pressure. Note that the parasympathetic nervous system is primarily directed toward the heart. The baroreceptors are stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors. At low pressures, baroreceptors become inactive. When blood pressure rises, the carotid and aortic sinuses are distended further, resulting in increased stretch and, therefore, a greater degree of activation of the baroreceptors. At normal resting blood pressures, many baroreceptors are actively reporting blood pressure information and the baroreflex is actively modulating autonomic activity. Active baroreceptors fire action potentials ("spikes") more frequently. The greater the stretch the more rapidly baroreceptors fire action potentials. Many individual baroreceptors are inactive at normal resting pressures and only become activated when their stretch or pressure threshold is exceeded.
Просмотров: 1371 The Audiopedia
Chloride Nursing Considerations, Normal Range, Nursing Care, Lab Values Nursing
 
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Grab our free cheatsheet covering the 63 Must Know Labs for nurses right here: http://www.NRSNG.com/labs Listen to all the episodes at: https://www.nrsng.com/labspodcast/ View this post on our blog: https://www.nrsng.com/chloride-cl/ Chloride (Cl-) Normal: 96-108 mEq/L Indications:  IdentifyAcid-Base Imbalance Description: Chloride (Cl-), an anion found in the blood, works together with sodium to help maintain oncotic pressure and water balance in the body. Chloride is inversely related to bicarbonate levels in the blood. Chloride is also part of hydrochloric acid (HCL) which is utilized in the stomach to breakdown food. When Red Blood Cells (RBCs) take up CO2 they take up chloride as well. The negative ion bicarbonate then leaves the red blood cell so that the electrical charge is maintained. Extra chloride is excreted into the urine by the kidneys. What would cause increased levels?  Dehydration  Acute Renal Failure  Cushing Disease  Metabolic Acidosis  Respiratory Alkalosis. What would cause decreased levels?  Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)  Water intoxication  Burns  Metabolic Alkalosis  Respiratory Acidosis  Addison Disease  Salt-losing Nephritis  Excessive sweating  Diarrhea  Vomiting
Просмотров: 3230 NRSNG
Sodium and Potassium Metabolism (Renin, Angiotensin, Aldosterone, and ADH)
 
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A review of the normal physiology of sodium, potassium, and water. Major topics covered include the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, ADH (antidiuretic hormone), and the natriuretic peptides.
Просмотров: 183516 Strong Medicine
Regulation of Arterial Pressure (1 of 3)
 
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Regulation of Arterial Pressure, Parasympathetic, Sympathetic outflow to heart, heart rate, contractility, constriction of arterioles, constriction of veins, unstressed volume, venous return, mean systemic pressure
Просмотров: 2854 Mamdouh Hanna
Explanation of CPK and BNP blood testing
 
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Explanation of CPK and BNP blood testing
Просмотров: 3599 Ethan L.
Heart Failure and BNP Deficiency
 
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BNP deficiency plays a key etiologic role in heart failure, presenting an opportunity for effective therapy from BNP treatment, Dr. John C. Burnett Jr. says.
Cardiology Countdown | Sleep, Lifestyle and New Uses for NT-proBNP
 
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Protected time for residents and better alertness, NT-proBNP predicted contrast-induces acute kidney injury, NT-proBNP and troponins identified a high risk group of outpatients with LVH.
WHY Low Salt Stresses the Body (Sodium, Hormones & Potassium)
 
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The Thread with OZY at http://www.ApplePodcasts.com/TheThread ▲Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/WILearned ▲Twitter: https://twitter.com/jeverettlearned If this topic interests you, I definitely recommend checking out Big Dr. James DiNicolantonio (@DrJamesDinic) 's very thorough book: "The Salt Fix" : http://amzn.to/2fzaBRk You'd be surprised how (even though this is my second video on salt) there's still much more to be said about it. You can find a PDF of the transcript with links to studies here: https://www.patreon.com/posts/14773843 For business inquiries: joseph.everett.wil@gmail.com
Просмотров: 239564 What I've Learned
What is WAON THERAPY? What does WAON THERAPY mean? WAON THERAPY meaning & explanation
 
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What is WAON THERAPY? What does WAON THERAPY mean? WAON THERAPY meaning - WAON THERAPY definition - WAON THERAPY explanation. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - http://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ?sub_confirmation=1 Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Waon therapy, developed in Japan, is a sauna-like form of hyperthermia therapy for patients with chronic heart failure. Waon is a Japanese word meaning soothing warmth. Waon therapy is proposed to improve prognosis and quality of life. The sauna room is an evenly warmed room at 60 °C (140 °F) with no hydration added. Patients sit in it for 15 minutes, after which, they are wrapped in thermal blankets and laid down to maintain heat for 30 minutes. Chronic heart failure patients suffer from an inability to pump enough blood to their tissues and heart, resulting in systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction. Waon therapy improves many indicators of heart function including: cardiac output, stroke volume, ejection fraction, while also having benefits in vascular function including decreased vascular resistance and blood pressure. Improvements were also seen in left ventricular diastolic dimension and left atrial dimension. Patients with aortic stenosis, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ischemic cardiomyopathies should not use Waon therapy as a treatment. Prohibiting patients with ischemic cardiomyopathies prevents an increase in temperature from further activating the sympathetic nervous system, which could cause tachycardia in these patients. Waon therapy increases blood flow by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein production (eNOS). eNOS makes nitric oxide, which is a vasodilator and increases blood flow. Waon therapy also increases blood flow by stimulating the mobilization endothelial progenitor cells marked with CD34 molecules. CD34 positive cells promote angiogenesis to increase blood flow, improving cardiac perfusion and decreasing vascular resistance. Nitric oxide is also a regulator of the sympathetic nervous system, and an increase of nitric oxide via endothelial nitric oxide synthase may help to control autonomic nervous system. In chronic heart failure the sympathetic nervous system is over-activated and the parasympathetic nervous system depressed, increasing stress on the heart. Waon therapy increases parasympathetic activity and decreases the sympathetic activity. These changes decrease stress on the heart by decreasing systemic resistance and increasing cardiac output, which decrease preload and afterload. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) decreases with Waon therapy. BNP is a negative indicator of cardiac function and is released during ventricular stretching. A 5 year study of Waon therapy showed a decrease in cardiac death and rehospitalisation after cardiac events. This treatment is currently only being used in Japan, but positive results suggest Waon therapy may be a new, non-pharmacological treatment for chronic heart failure patients and other vascular resistance diseases.
Просмотров: 31 The Audiopedia
Emerging Role of Natriuretic Peptides
 
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Description: Dr. Deborah Clegg, a professor in the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Internal Medicine at Cedars-Sinai in Beverly Hills, CA, introduces a novel treatment in her article appearing in the December 2015 issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, that changes the adipose tissue around the heart to improve cardiac function. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/now525e
Просмотров: 155 Mayo Proceedings
USMLE Renal 6: RAAS Pathway, Endocrine Functions and Pharmacology
 
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Welcome to LY Med, where I go over everything you need to know for the USMLE STEP 1, with new videos every day. Follow along with First Aid, or with my notes which can be found here: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/mt1jrikc24022py/AADNAVG8cAj4Su7xFO74fLBka?dl=0 This video is on the RAAS pathway. Your kidneys need a certain amount of blood pressure to filter your plasma! When there is a drop in pressure, it activates the RAAS and this helps us raise our blood pressure by reabsorbing salt and water. How does it do this? In your afferent arteriole, you have special juxtaglomerular cells which sense a drop in pressure and release the enzyme renin. Another things that stimulates renin release is sympathetic response via B1 receptors. Also in your distal convoluted tubule, you have macula densa cells that sense low sodium and release renin. So how does renin reabsorb salt and water? Renin meets a protein called angiotensinogen and converts it to angiotensin I. This moves to the lung where an enzyme called angiotensin converting enzyme turns it into angiotensin II. Angiotensin II does a host of things, including increasing the Na/H pump in the PCT, increase aldosterone which work on the ENAC channel and increase ADH (aquaporin channels). It also stimulates thirst, vasoconstriction especially in your efferent arteriole. What regulates this system and makes sure we don't have too high of blood pressure? Well when your heart gets fluid overloaded it starts to release hormones, including atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide. This helps us lose water and salt and thus it's a counterregulatory measure. Some pathophysiology tie-in, in heart failure you get fluid overloaded and this raises BNP. We often measure this! Now let's talk about some pharmacology. Drugs that work here help us lower our blood pressure. For example, you have aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor. Other drugs include ACE inhibitors which stops the conversion to angiotensin II. This is great in diabetic nephropathy as well as those with heart disease and post myocardial infarction. Side effects include cough and angioedema. Also it's a teratogen, causing fetal renal malformation. Another drug includes angiotensin II blockers. This contains less side effects as it doesn't work on the bradykinin system as ACE inhibitors do. Now our last topic will touch on some other endocrine functions of the kidneys. These include: Dopamine: Released in the proximal convoluted tubule, it causes vasodilation. 1 alpha hydroxylase: activates vitamin D Prostaglandins: dilate the afferent arteriole. EPO: released in peritubular capillaries and helps increase RBCs.
Просмотров: 2034 LY Med
Heart failure: BNP
 
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Heart failure: BNP
Просмотров: 153 Dr. Andras Fazakas
What is a normal BNP blood test
 
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What is a normal BNP blood test - Find out more explanation for : 'What is a normal BNP blood test' only from this channel. Information Source: google
Просмотров: 49 WikiAudio3
General overview of the RAAS system: Cells and hormones | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
 
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Learn the important cells and hormones that are working together to control your blood pressure! Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. Created by Rishi Desai. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-renal-system/rn-renal-regulation-of-blood/v/renin-production-in-the-kidneys?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-renal-system/rn-the-renal-system/v/secondary-active-transport-in-the-nephron?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s NCLEX-RN channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDx5cTeADCvKWgF9x_Qjz3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Просмотров: 483359 khanacademymedicine
Heart Minute | BNP in Congestive and Hypertrophic Heart Failure
 
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In this era of cost containment, home BNP measurement may be in the future for patients with heart failure.
Просмотров: 194 American College of Cardiology
Medical Surgical Cardiovascular System: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
 
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Hello Everyone, here is a Cardiovascular lecture on Congestive Heart Failure made easy to understand to help aide in your study sessions. I have gathered all of the important information from my Med- Surg Book (Brunners and Suddarth 12th edition) and NCLEX review (Saunders 6th edition) that will prepare you for your nursing test whether it is for school or NCLEX. Part 2 of this lecture will be located under the Pharmacology section as it continues with cardiac meds that will further explains MOA, side effects, etc. Here are some Extra information that may help and guide you... Two major types of HF are identified by assessment of left ventricular functioning, usually by echocardiogram. The more common type is an alteration in ventricular contraction called systolic heart failure, which is characterized by a weakened heart muscle. The less common type is diastolic heart failure, which is characterized by a stiff and noncompliant heart muscle, making it difficult for the ventricle to fill. An assessment of the ejection fraction (EF) is performed to assist in determining the type of HF. EF is calculated by subtracting the amount of blood present in the left ventricle at the end of systole from the amount present at the end of diastole and calculating the percentage of blood that is ejected. A normal EF is 55% to 65% of the ventricular volume; the ventricle does not completely empty between contractions. The EF is normal in diastolic HF but severely reduced in systolic HF. Although a low EF is a hallmark of systolic HF, which is the most common type of HF, the severity of HF is frequently classified according to the patient’s symptoms. Pathophysiology: Systolic HF results in decreased blood volume being ejected from the ventricle. The decreased ventricular stretch is sensed by baroreceptors in the aortic and carotid bodies. The sympathetic nervous system is then stimulated to release epinephrine and norepinephrine. The purpose of this initial response is to increase heart rate and contractility and support the failing myocardium, but the continued response has multiple negative effects. Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. A decrease in renal perfusion due to low CO and vasoconstriction then causes the release of renin by the kidneys. Renin promotes the formation of angiotensin I, a benign, inactive substance. Angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) in the lumen of pulmonary blood vessels converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, which then increases the blood pressure and afterload. Angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, resulting in sodium and fluid retention by the renal tubules and stimulation of antidiuretic hormone. These mechanisms lead to the fluid volume overload commonly seen in HF. Angiotensin, aldosterone, and other neurohormones (eg, endothelin, prostacyclin) lead to an increase in preload and afterload, which increases stress on the ventricular wall, causing an increase in the workload of the heart. A counterregulatory mechanism is attempted through the release of natriuretic peptides. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type (ie, brain type) natriuretic peptide (BNP) are released from the overdistended cardiac chambers. These substances promote vasodilation and diuresis. However, their effect is usually not strong enough to overcome the negative effects of the other mechanisms. As the heart’s workload increases, contractility of the myocardial muscle fibers decreases. Decreased contractility results in an increase in end-diastolic blood volume in the ventricle, stretching the myocardial muscle fibers and increasing the size of the ventricle (ventricular dilation). The increased size of the ventricle further increases the stress on the ventricular wall, adding to the workload of the heart. One way the heart compensates for the increased workload is to increase the thickness of the heart muscle (ventricular hypertrophy). However, hypertrophy results in an abnormal proliferation of myocardial cells, a process known as ventricular remodeling. Under the influence of neurohormones (eg, angiotensin II), large myocardial cells are produced that are dysfunctional and die early, leaving the other normal myocardial cells to struggle to maintain CO. The compensatory mechanisms of HF have been called the “vicious cycle of HF” because the heart does not pump sufficient blood to the body, which causes the body to stimulate the heart to work harder; thus, the heart cannot respond and failure becomes worse. Diastolic HF develops because of continued increased workload on the heart, which responds by increasing the number and size of myocardial cells (ie, ventricular hypertrophy and altered cellular functioning). These responses cause resistance to ventricular filling, which increases ventricular filling pressures despite a normal or reduced blood volume.
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Metabolism of Brain Peptides PDF
 
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Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Neprilysin
 
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Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Neprilysin, This videos will help you to increase your knowledge for the USMLE step 1 and how to be more than a physician with encouragement quotes. Thank you! God bless you and your knowledge!
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Effects on the Cardiovascular System
 
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Steroids can lead to the build-up of deposits on the walls of artery a condition called atherosclerosis. The blood's current can cause the deposit to break away from the artery wall, and as the deposit travels through the blood stream it can be wedged against a narrower blood vessel, a common cause of heart attacks. If the deposit gets stuck in the heart it can block blood flow, causing a heart attack; if stuck in the brain, the result could be a stroke.
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Regulation of Blood Pressure
 
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Anatomy & Physiology Microbiology Health Science Core with Dr. Samia Williams Santa Fe College Professor.
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Medical vocabulary: What does Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type mean
 
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What does Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type mean in English?
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Factors that increase Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) secretion
 
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Factors that increase Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) secretion
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How do you check for congestive heart failure ?  | Best Health FAQS
 
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Treatment for acute heart failure and chronic is often the 18, 2002 there has never been a blood test congestive before,' said lead investigator alan maisel, m. Heart failure heart matters. 22, your doctor will diagnose heart failure based on your medical and family histories, a physical exam, and test results. Your blood pressure will be takena healthcare professional listen to your heart and lungs using a stethoscope. Congestive heart failure (chf) diagnosis healthcommunities. 8, how it's done you'll be asked about your medical history and symptoms. Save time and money by browsing our entire selection!. 6, congestive heart failure (chf) or cardiac failure (ccf) occurs when the but include urinalysis to determine if there is kidney failure and 1, 2007 testing a person's bnp level is an easy and accurate way to help doctors bnp helps the body compensate for congestive heart failure (chf); 27, doctors can often make a preliminary diagnosis of heart failure by bnp testing can be very helpful in correctly diagnosing heart failure in these tests can help identify causes of heart failure; Whether other organs, such as a blood urea nitrogen (bun) test measures the amount of nitrogen in the 2, the cause of your acute heart failure will determine your treatment plan. Quick blood test for heart failure proves successful in. Your doctor will examine your heart and lungs carefully, checking purchase blood test for congestive failure conveniently online with walk in lab. Common tests for heart failure american association heartorg heartfailure diagnosingheartfailure common failure_ucm_306334_article. Heart disease diagnosing congestive heart failure (chf) imaginis. The physical exam is generally painless after the exam, your doctor also order some of these tests blood testselectrocardiogram (ecg)cardiac computerized tomography (ct) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (mri)myocardial biopsy 5 what are congestive heart failure symptoms and warning signs? Is there a test other exams to diagnose failure? . An echocardiogram (echo) is a test that uses sound waves to create moving chf testscardiomyopathy tests6, 2005 simple blood can quickly identify what type of congestive heart failure (chf) patient has, improving diagnostic accuracy; Eliminating the find out about tests used diagnose and main stages check whether there's anything in your might indicate symptoms condition causes determine functional capabilities with life line screening offers screenings help if 6 for includes testing cholesterol glucose, you should 28, majdi ashchi, do, facc, fscai, fabvm, fsvm medical director. Director of the coronary care. How do you check for congestive heart failure? Youtube. Congestive heart failure causes, symptoms, treatment diuretics how is diagnosed? Nhlbi, nih. The signs and symptoms 30, 2000 when suggest congestive heart failure, the diagnosis usually is a noninvasive test used to measure electrical activity in 20, check if you have your doctor will ask about order some tests as well. Congestive heart failure symptoms, stages, treatment & life congestive screening tests and symptoms. Once he figures out what's 5, webmd explains congestive heart failure, including causes, symptoms, and treatment options 2, during the physical, doctor will check your blood pressure, use a stethoscope to hear sounds associated with failure in 15, (chf), also called is condition which can no longer pump as efficiently it used if you suspect have symptoms of should talk this section tests want what test 11, genetic testing for at risk patients first degree relative who has been diagnosed cardiomyopathy leading 16, read patient information from medlineplus. Simple blood test can quickly identify type of congestive heart failure. Bnp an important new cardiac test harvard health. In some cases, results from coronary artery 1, how congestive heart failure is diagnosed through a series of various tests. Jsp url? Q webcache. Congestive heart failure diagnostic testing drdiagnosis and evaluation of american family disease the spruce. Heart failure cleveland clinic hospital clevelandclinic. Common tests for heart failure american association. Heart failure diagnosis nhs choices. Heart failure tests and diagnosis mayo clinic. Heart failure overview diagnosis the new york times. Congestive heart failure diagnosis national jewish health. Congestive heart failure american association. Schedule a heart failure check take control of your health. Heart failure workup approach considerations, routine heart tests medlineplus medical encyclopedia. Googleusercontent search. To determine whether you have heart failure, your healthcare team do 15, there is no single diagnostic test for failure; Therefore, it remains a clinical diagnosis requiring history, physical examination, and 11, diagnosing disease or failure in the dog cat requires combination of several different testing methods when patients present symptoms that indicate chf, tests will be performed to cause.
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Glycosylated Hemoglobin A1c Nursing Considerations, Normal Range, Nursing Care, Lab Values Nursing
 
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Grab our free cheatsheet covering the 63 Must Know Labs for nurses right here: http://www.NRSNG.com/labs Listen to all the episodes at: https://www.nrsng.com/labspodcast/ View this post on our blog: https://www.nrsng.com/glycosylated-hemoglobin-hba1c/ Glycosylated Hemoglobin(HbA1c) Normal: 5.6-7.5 % of total Hgb Indications:  Assess control of blood sugars over a several month time frame  Diagnose Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Description: Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) is the combination of glucose and hemoglobin. When glucose is elevated in the blood the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin increases proportionally. A red blood cells lifespan is about 4 months, so you can get an idea of blood sugar control over the last several months. What would cause increased levels?  Poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus(DM)  Non-Diabetic Hyperglycemia: o Stress o Cushing Syndrome o Pheochromocytoma o Corticosteroid Therapy What would cause decreased levels?  Renal failure  Blood loss  Hemolytic anemia  Sickle cell anemia
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Atrial Fibrillation - Dr Irina Savelieva
 
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Dr Irina Savelieva, Lecturer in Cardiology, Division of Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, St George's, University of London, talks to Cardio Debate about atrial fibrillation. TRANSCRIPT How to identify patients with AF who are at high risk of stroke? That’s obviously the question that all physicians who face patients with atrial fibrillation for the first time should ask themselves, that’s a very important component of management of atrial fibrillation. And of course there is the CHADS VASC score. This is a very good scheme that has been adopted by many regulatory authorities and guidelines, which is pretty simple. It incorporates major risk factors which are easily identifiable during your first interview with your patient. And it includes congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, age, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, advance stage – well if you can see that some aged over 75 years is advanced, so that’s your answer – and female gender. The problem with the CHADS CASC score is that we don’t have very concrete data in patients with the CHADS VASC score 1, for example. And we don’t know exactly what the weight of separate isolated risk factors are in a patient with the CHADS VASC score of 1, and there were reports that probably these patients are not necessarily at a very high risk of stroke when anticoagulation is warranted. The ESC guidelines however do support anticoagulation in these patients and I think that physicians should follow these guidelines. On the other hand an important thing is that patients with a CHADS VASC score of 0 are not entirely risk free of stroke. Strokes do happen in otherwise healthy persons with atrial fibrillation, with low atrial fibrillation if you will. And this is a particular problem for us physicians, because obviously for such patients stroke is an absolutely devastating consequence of untreated atrial fibrillation that we could have prevented in this case. And we’re trying to develop new markers for example some biomarkers such as brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), troponin, some coagulation parameters in order to assist better risk stratification in this particular patient population. Some imaging techniques, for example MRI of the atria may indicate that certain morphologies of left atrial appendage, for example, may predispose to high risk of stroke. The extent of left atrial fibrosis also has been shown to be associated with increased risk of stroke. So that risk stratification is ongoing, it’s a moving issue. But for the time being, for the clinician, when you first face a patient with atrial fibrillation, do CHADS VASC score and this would help you guide your management in terms of oral anticoagulation. Anticoagulation and bleeding risk: Prevention and treatment Bleeding as a result of oral anticoagulation is of course a dreadful consequence that was probably imposed on the patient by us, the physicians. So therefore numerous schemes have been developed in order to predict such tragic consequence of treatment with oral anticoagulants. We advocate the use of HAS-BLED. That’s a very simple one to calculate, and again it does include factors that are easily identifiable, and most importantly they are, to some extent, modifiable at the same time. For example it helps to highlight patients with poorly controlled hypertension that predisposes to high risk of intracranial bleeding, for example, or patients who are receiving concomitant medications that may potentiate the adverse effects of oral anticoagulants for example gastro-intestinal tract, etc. So by calculating this risk score HAS-BLED, we can identify risk factors that can change and therefore we can reduce the patient’s risk of bleeding. But at the end of the day it is a very fine balance between the risk and benefit. And therefore here we have to exercise an individual approach to the patient. And of course again, here, we also have some new developments. For example there is a very interesting observation that finding micro-bleeds on the MRI of the brain may actually predict the subsequent hemorrhagic stroke or even ischemic stroke, and this would help to risk stratify patients in terms of anti-coagulation. Of course it is mainly a research tool, as well as the previously mentioned imaging of the left atrium as we discussed, but it is a research tool today; tomorrow it will be part of risk stratification (protocols) in terms of bleeding. The role of NOACs in everyday practice: Farewell to warfarin? NOACs or warfarin – that’s a dilemma. NOACs is an acronym for new oral anticoagulants. However, these drugs are not that entirely new, and NOACs now stand for Non-Vitamin K Anti Oral Coagulants, not New or Novel. To read the rest of the transcript please visit www.cardio-debate.com
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Thirst Mechanism
 
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HORMONES OF HEART KIDNEY AND GASTROINESTINAL TRACT
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. HORMONES OF HEART, KIDNEY AND GASTROINESTINAL TRACT : HEART : Atrial wall of heart secretes peptide hormone called atrial natriuretic factor ANF which decreases B.P when B.P is increased, ANF is secreted which causes dilation of blood vessels. This reduces B.P. KIDNEY : The juxtraglomerular cells of kidney produce 2 hormones erythropoietinstimulates bone marrow to produce more RBC's and Renin acts on protein angiotensinogen to form angiotersin. Angiotensin raises B.P to increase ultra filtration. Gastro -- intestinal Tract : Endocrine cells present in different parts of gastro intestinal tract secrete 4 major peptide hormones. Gastrin : acts on gastric glands and stimulates the secretion of Hcl and pepsinogen. Secretin -- acts on exocrine pancreas and stimulates secretion of water and bicarbonate ions. Cholecystokinin : acts on both pancreas and gall bladder and stimulates the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and bile juice. Gastric inhibitory peptide : inhibits gastric secretion and motility. Several non endocrine tissues secrete hormones called growth factors. These factors are essential for normal growth and tissues and their repairing / regeneration.
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Aldosterone functions
 
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Aldosterone plays an important role in blood pressure controlling... Angiotensin helps in this...
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"Hyponatremia in the Critically Ill Child" by Andrea Moscatelli, MD, for OPENPediatrics
 
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Learn about the pathophysiology and types of hyponatremia, and how to properly diagnose and correct hyponatremia through clinical case studies. Please visit: www.openpediatrics.org OPENPediatrics™ is an interactive digital learning platform for physicians and nurses sponsored by Boston Children's Hospital and in collaboration with the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. It is designed to promote the exchange of knowledge between physicians and nurses around the world caring for critically ill children in all resource settings. The content includes internationally recognized physician and nursing experts teaching the full range of topics on the care of critically ill children. All content is peer-reviewed and open access-and thus at no expense to the user. For further information on how to enroll, please email: openpediatrics@childrens.harvard.edu Please note: OPENPediatrics does not support nor control any related videos in the sidebar, these are placed by Youtube. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. My name is Andrea Moscatelli. I'm the director of the Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at the Gaslini Children's Hospital in Genova, Italy. In the next few minutes, we'll talk about the treatment and prevention of hyponatremia in the critically ill child. We will start with the definition and pathophysiology of hyponatremia, then we will go through some case presentation, and we'll focus on the treatment and prevention of hyponatremia. Pathophysiology of Hyponatremia. You have hyponatremia when there is a relative excess of free water with an underlying condition that impairs the kidney's ability to excrete free water. This might happen in the case of excessive intake of water, if there is a marked reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, or if there is a renal hypoperfusion, either if there is an ADH excess. This condition is affecting 25% of the critically ill children. It is considered moderate if sodium is below 130, and this condition is affecting more than 1% of hospitalized children. Serum sodium is strictly regulated by some interplay mechanism. The first one is the incretion of vasopressin. Vasopressin is increted by the posterior hypophysis in response to stimuli, like a reduction in the circulating volume or an increase in plasma osmolarity, while the renin-angiotension-aldosterone system is able to enhance the reabsorption of sodium and water in case of hypovolemia. The sympathetic nervous system has similar effects to the renin-angiotension-aldosterone system. Atrial natriuretic peptide has opposite effects. So if you think about the cell, the main intracellular ion is potassium, while the main extracellular ion is sodium, and urea is able to move freely across the cell membrane. So to measure the plasma osmolarity, you can go through this formula, which takes into account sodium, glucose, and the BUN. But if you think about the driving force for the movement of water across the cell membrane, you should think about tonicity. So you wouldn't take into account urea, which is able to move freely across the cell membrane. And you just take into account sodium and glucose. By using the above formulas for osmolarity and tonicity, or by measuring a patient's osmolarity as a lab value, you can assess whether they are hypo-osmolar or hypotonic, serum osmolarity of less than 280, isotonic serum osmolarity of 280-295, or hypertonic serum osmolarity of greater than 295. A patient's osmolarity and tonicity are important in assessing the causes of hyponatremia.
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Recommended screening in Diabetic teens with positive Microalbumin test - Dr. Pradeep Kumar T J
 
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In young diabetic individual, we are most likely looking at Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes we are looking at absolute deficiency of insulin. These individuals tend to have multiorgan system involvement in the body. As part of this multiorgan system involvement, kidney is one of the organs that can get affected very early in the stage of the disease. Hence even if they have their blood sugar levels being normal, with higher levels of HbA1c levels with microalbumin which indicates that the kidney is losing proteins from the body, this is one of the early indicator of a kidney involvement. This has to be monitored on a daily basis. hence this can be a marker of a kidney disease as a first marker of kidney disease. Hence they need to be checking their kidney functions on a periodic basis, once in 6 months, though their other values can be normal.
Exercise 18: Thoracic, abdominopelvic cavity Model
 
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Thyroid gland - produces T4, T3, and calcitonin (Correction: C cells secrete the calcitonin) Thyroid cartilage Hyoid bone Thymus gland - secretes thymosin, that helps T cell maturation, which help in the immune system Heart (located in the mediastinum) - secretes natriuretic peptides which lower blood pressure Kidney - releases calcitriol, which helps increase calcium in the body; also releases EPO (Erythropoeitin) which helps to stimulate RBC production in bone marrow Suprarenal gland/Adrenal gland Pancreas - head, body, and tail; exocrine because it secretes digestive enzymes in the acini, endocrine because it secretes insulin (when glucose is LOW) and glucagon (when glucose is HIGH) in the islets
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NHS Dorset Cardiac and Stroke Network patient film on heart failure.wmv
 
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Have you been troubled by: breathelessness when resting, persistent cough, swollen legs, ankles and feet, waking in the night gasping for breath? This short film will help patients recognise the possible symptoms of heart failure and what GPs can do to quickly diagnose and treat this condition. The film highlights the new simple brain natriuretic peptide blood test which is now available across Dorset
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