Asthma treatment (asthma attack), symptoms, pathophysiology nursing NCLEX review lecture. This lecture will detail the pathophysiology of asthma along with the early warning signs vs active signs of an asthma attack. In addition to a sample asthma action plan along with using a peak flow meter to monitor asthma, asthma triggers, nursing interventions for asthma, and all the medications used to treat asthma, which are bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory medications.
What is asthma? Asthma is a chronic lung disease (no cure) that causes narrowing and inflammation of the airways (bronchi and bronchioles) that leads to difficulty breathing.
How does it happen? Normally, when you breathe in air, it travels down through your upper airway to your lower airway, which includes the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli (where gas exchanges happens). The oxygen you breathe in crosses over into your blood stream, and the carbon dioxide in your blood crosses over into the airway to be exhaled.
In patients with asthma, the bronchi and bronchioles are chronically inflamed and can become so inflamed that it leads to an asthma attack (wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, coughing), which is usually due to a trigger of some type.
Asthma triggers include: -Environment: smoke, pollen, pollution, perfumes, dander, dust mites, pests (cockroaches), cold and dry air, mold -Body Issue: respiratory infection, GERD, hormonal shifts, exercise-induced -Intake of Certain Substances: drugs (beta adrenergic blockers that are nonselective), NSAIDS, aspirin, preservatives (sulfites)
Signs and Symptoms of an asthma attack include: chest tightness, wheezing (auscultate…expiratory wheezing and can progress to inspiratory wheezes in severe cases), coughing, difficulty breathing (***especially exhaling), increased respiratory rate
Asthma treatment includes: bronchodilators (beta-agonists, anticholinergics, theophylline along with anti-inflammatories (corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, immunomodulators, cromolyn).
Asthma NCLEX questions: http://www.registerednursern.com/asthma-nclex-questions/
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