Videos uploaded by user “Doctors' Circle - World's Largest Health Platform”
How often should you wash your face? - Dr. Rasya Dixit
One of the most frequent questions I get asked by patients is who often do my face. My face becomes very oily even after half an hour of washing it should I wash it again or they tell me that the wash their face again and again to keep their skin looking fresh but when you normally talk about skin and skin care we usually tell you to use your face wash to 2 or maximum 3 times a day why do we say not to wash face wash more often than that whatever face wash your using even though it is a soap free products it keeps tripping the skin of the normal oil barrier under skin barrier which the skin forms every day when you wash your face more and more often you are actually striping the skin of the protective elements at it makes work hard to make for example there is a barrier which is made by the skin this is containing ceramides some sebum so when you strip your skin of this protective barrier you actually harming the skin so some people might think skin is becoming more oily so let me wash it more often but what you are creating is when you wash your face more often, your skin actually creates more oil to protect itself and therefore your intern causing the skin to damage itself so the chances of breakout or whatever skin sensitivity that you already have actually increases when you wash your face more often so how do you do or how often do you wash your face I think you need to wash your face 2 times a day once you get up in the morning and once when you before go to bed. Yes some of us travel a lot in pollution and there will definitely be excuse if they want to wash face a third time but the third time stick to just plain water or use a very gentle soap free cleanser and then don't forget to immediately hydrate your skin without water containing or high uranic acid gel which seals your barrier and prevents your skin from getting excessively dry which could next lead to other complications such as excessively sensitive skin, dry skin and rashes.
Is it okay to pull out Grey Hair? - Dr. Rasya Dixit
Its not true ,plucking of grey hair is not going to cause more grey hair. Colours also wont cause grey hair they just mask grey hair wont react with scalp.Grey are caused by inner problems.Have a healthy life style ,include protein ,exercise regularly to prevent grey hair.
What to do when face is darker than body? - Dr. Rasya Dixit
The face and exposed part of arms are usually much darker than the unexposed part of the body. Reason for this is as these are constantly exposed to light and pollution. The skin also get darker as it is toughening itself against the environment so this is a protective mechanism which the skin is doing. Nobody wants their face dark so it is very important that you use sunscreens regularly. When you use your sunscreens a dramatic change is not going to happen within few days or weeks, the pigmentation or the constitutional tone which went darker on your face is a cumulative exposure over years so the sunscreen which is a protective mechanism by itself cannot give you all the improvement. In the night you should start some good vitamin C creams which is good skin lightening agent and very safe, you can start using it every night or every alternative night which helps in lightening your skin. Other safe creams to use are glycholic acid creams which exfoliates skin gently use them once in a week. Don't ever be harsh with the pigmented areas of the skin, when skin is already dark and sensitized to the sun if you try doing procedures like bleach, scrubbing very often the skin is going to go darker because that is how skin protects itself by becoming thicker and going darker, avoid it and be gentle with your exfoliation. Scrub and do your glycolic creams once a week. Eat healthy, eat lot of bright colored vegetables and fruits as they contain carotene's as well as bioflavonoid's these are natural anti oxidants and natural lightening agents. Vitamin C being one of the most important ones protecting your skin against the sun. If you still feel that after doing all these for 2-3 months also your skin is dark then you need expert help that's when you see your dermatologist
Tips to get rid of open pores in face naturally - Dr. Mini Nair
Ask Doctors - Get Video Answers in HINDI Subscribe to - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCS1y5nTRddMYnozjN9iw0mA for HINDI videos Pores on the skin is very important because it is through these pores that our skin breathes and expels the toxins out, but as we age or because of some underlying issues like hormonal imbalances or imbalance in the food that we are taking, or in excess smoking, the skin loss it natural elasticity giving rise to prominent or open pores, these open sores on the nose, check and chin can collect lot of dust and dirt and gets inflamed and outbreaks of acne, blackheads, hyperpigmentation is seen. So what we need to do is first check the reason underlying why these pores are open. We can tighten the skin and keep the pores as close as possible. So there are lot of tips that we undertake, but try to find out what is the reason, in case of diet we need to take a balanced diet, drink lot of water and keep your skin supple, there are various methods how we can keep our skin healthy, ash your face twice daily with warm or cold water. Do not use hot water on your face because it can get your skin cleared off the natural oil that is present. We need to wash atleast twice a day to get rid of the excess oil or the other cosmetics that we are using regularly, otherwise the clogged pores can give rise to breakouts. Once it is washed thoroughly, you need to tap it dry and start using egg whites. Egg white is a natural protein and this keeps your skin tight and thereby keep the pores also closer and rejuvenates the skin. Two or there times a week you can try Egg white. Egg white helps to keep your skin smooth and nourished. Multani mitti can be applied using plain water in cases of excessive oily skin or you can mix it with cows milk or coconut milk in case with people who have dry skin. Mutani mitti is a coolant and has a natural astringent which keeps the skin tighter and keeps the pores closed and cleanses off all the dust and dirt that is settled in the pores. Once it is slight dry you can wash it or do a gentle scrub, scrubbing also helps in exfoliating the skin and clears the skin off the dead cells. Take ice cubes wrap in a cloth and run it on your face. Doing this also helps to help to tighten the skin and keeps the pores as close as possible, instead of using plain ice as ice cubes, you can squeeze in lemon into the ice trays and freeze it. And wrap the lime water ice cubes and rub it on the face. This can be done on an everyday basis and this helps the skin to tighten up an also even before you apply the cosmetic so that these cosmetics will not enter your pores and clog it and give rise to outbreaks. This way you can maintain your skin clear and radiant.
Can you get pregnant with precum? - Dr. Shefali Tyagi
Precum is ejaculatory fluid men secrete just before they have the ejaculation.Sperms can be presented in precum. But they are very low or dead.But there is theoretical possibility for sperm in the precum. It.It depends upon individuals also. Some can have few sperms and some can have no sperms.It is very unlikely to get pregnant with precum. Precum is a fluid which cleans out the urethra and makes the environment of the urethra more conducive for the sperms.so that they are not killed while coming out through the urethra.When a person has had ejaculation and not passed urine after that and again has erection and ejaculation in that case life sperms can be present in the urethra because of the previous ejaculation and second time precum can have live sperms which can make you pregnant but the possibility is very low so better to protect your self by using condom if you want to prevent pregnancy.
Tips to increase baby weight in the womb - Dr. Teji Ashok Dawane
The baby in the womb at about 5 months is about 200 to 500 grams. This is till the baby’s organs are getting formed. It is only after 5 months the baby starts putting on weight and that is when what we need to concentrate upon. For baby to put on weight for body building and muscle building we often advice a high protein diet. Whatever the body absorbs from natural sources is always 100%. So we would advice you to take a high protein diet consciously at every day. Try to incorporate some amount of protein in your food. Vegetarian sources of protein would be soya beans, soya milk, soya yogurt, chickpeas, rajma, double beans, kidney beans. Sprouts I would advice not to take raw, we probably steam it and add a little bit of lemon so that it adds a little bit of flavour. Along with that you have dals like sambar, orrdh dal, kichdi that we routinely make. Apart from that we have dry fruits like almonds, walnuts, dates. The non vegetarian sources of protein would include eggs so we would suggest two egg whites almost everyday. Apart from that you can have chicken soup, meat. You can include all these in your diet to increase body weight. Apart from these in your growth scan if you feel that the baby weight is less then we would add some medicated powders which will increase the baby weight.
What can I do to make my embryos stick? - Dr. Nirmala T S
This is a very common things that people come asking. Embryos sticking on to the uterus is such a natural and a biological process. Such a complicated process involving a lot of intrinsic factors like the quality of the embryo the adhesion factors, the growth factors the genetic profiling of the uterus lining, the blood flow, the texture and ultimately the last thing that you have , the beauty is the dialogue which happens between the mother and the embryo over there. So there is nothing that is external that could have an influence on the uterus, is what I wish to say. There are people who ask me do you than that the embryos will fall out if I walk or if I do not take rest, if I walk fast or if I climb stairs. No, there is nothing like that. Every natural cycle when an embryo is formed inside the tubes and the embryo is pushed and transported back to the uterus? Does it fall out? We are continuing to do your routine activities, we do not even now that the embryo is formed and it has come to the uterus. Does the embryo fall out so easily? It doesn’t nature has a beautiful way of holding the embryo inside her. So these extremeous factors just do not have an impact.
5 common mistakes we all do while washing face - Dr.Amee Daxini
The common mistakes while washing the face is as follows.. 1) Use a better face wash rather than using a soap because soap is very hard and it's an alkali and that causes skin dryness. 2) Do not wash your face frequently, especially people who have oily skin. wash your face twice daily. 3) Do not use hot water to wash your face always use cold water. 4) Apply face wash start from the chin and move upwards and do the same downwards also. 5) Do not use scrubs, as a face wash daily. Use scrub weekly twice.
How to apply a sunscreen? - Dr. Urmila Nischal
when you apply sunscreen right quantity is important.When you need to apply to whole face you need two to two and half Finger tip unit .When you apply sunscreen your face should be dry.
How to do kick counts when pregnant? - Dr. Shefali Tyagi
Fetal movements are very important part of pregnancy.Generally fetal movements are felt from 20 weeks or so.They continue till up to your delivery.Initially fetal movements will be slightly irregular and not so strong which is acceptable.After 30 - 32 weeks its important to be vigilant about the movement.Daily you must feel movements as a pattern typically after snacks or lunch or dinner.Its better to keep subconscious track that how you have been feeling all these days and If you feel that last 3 - 4 hours you have not felt any movements its better to eat something lie down on your left position and count for 2 hours.You should find at least 10 movements in those 2 hours.If you still can't find any movements its always safer to go the doctor..
Things to do after a Positive Pregnancy Test - Dr. Shefali Tyagi
The first thing to do after a positive pregnancy test is to visit your gynaecologist, it is not a very good idea to keep on waiting and thinking that after 1 or 2 or 3 weeks I will go and see or test again and then see. As soon as the pregnancy test comes positive it is better to go and meet the doctor because they could be conditions where you might need to have some support from the doctor in form of medicines. Some pregnancies don't do well, some pregnancies land up in tubes which is the wrong location and they can be other medical issues which need to be sorted out as soon as you become pregnant. When you visit your gynaecologist always remember that you have to remember the date of the last period because all your dating of the pregnancy happens from that day the first day of the last period. Then you should come clean as far as the history is concerned do not hide anything from the doctor, whether you had any surgeries any other termination, any other problems, you have been taking some medicines for diabetes blood pressure, epilepsy all these have to be told very clearly because certain medicines are not allowed in pregnancy. In case you are on some medication say for epilepsy or something else on let's say blood pressure these can be changed to the safer alternatives which you can take during pregnancy. The other thing is that the folic acid has to be started soon after when you become pregnant in fact you should be taking it before you start planning. So if you are not on folic acid and you do not visit your doctor you are wasting that precious time sitting at home and not providing your baby with the adequate dose of folic acid. So as soon as you miss your periods and test positive it is important to go and get checked by the doctor and stick to the test that she prescribes.
What is the best way to eat almonds? - Ms. Ranjani Raman
Almonds are nutritionally packed and should be taken regularly for maximum benefit. They are rich in healthy fats, protein, fiber, minerals such as zinc, calcium, magnesium etc. However to ensure that these nutrients are absorbed properly we have to take them in the soaked form overnight for about 8 to 12 hours, as they contain a compound called as tannins which are inhibitors, which inhibit the nutrient absorption. Apart from this, when the almonds are soaked they release an enzyme called as lipase, which helps in the digestion of fats, thereby resulting in a better digestion. Soaked almonds help in regulating blood pressure, diabetes and also helps in reducing your cholesterol levels. They are also rich in insoluble fibers. Thereby helps in preventing constipation. Also their folic acid level helps in maintaining a better nervous system and when consumed during pregnancy, helps in the good development of the fetus. Hence soaked almonds are much higher in terms of nutrient availability.
Facts about Sex during Pregnancy - Dr. Hema Divakar
We talk about sex during pregnancy, this is something you always wanted to ask a doctor but you don't know how to ask, when to ask and you have your own myths and misconceptions and you wish the doctor would come across more approachable, more friendly rather than you being hesitant to ask this and therefore the importance of dialogue with the diwakar on the topic of sex in pregnancy. Well it is first of all to understand that it is safe in pregnancy unless you have any problems which may lead to abortion for example if you had pain or bleeding in the pregnancy or had previous abortions the doctor herself will advise you not to have sex. But otherwise by and large the baby is well protected. So it is very well cushioned all around and having sex will not hurt your baby in any manner what so ever. Well is in another matter that in the first three months of pregnancy you have vomiting, you are exhausted, you're too tired and you don't feel like it and so also in the last 3 months because your tummy is growing you may feel really uncomfortable. But overall in the middle 3 months and anytime in pregnancy it is safe to have sex.
Is it okay to get periods twice in a month? - Dr. Shefali Tyagi
It is not normal to have periods twice in a month, periods are supposed to come once every month from between 21 to 35 days of cycle is considered normal. So if you had period twice in a month the reason he needs to be explored in, now if you have travelled you have had change of city, change of whether, any stress factors, any other medications for any other reason which is not related to period, be it your fever, urinary track infection, for any skin allergy these can have effect of the period. Consumption of emergency contraceptive commonly called I pill also has effect on the period and if none of these factors are present, it could be a plain simple hormonal imbalance. So these are the factors which need to be ruled out if it is only one episode that you had period twice in a month you can still wait and watch, but if it becomes like every 15-20 days every 5-10 days that you are bleeding and certainly not normal. Please get in touch with the doctor where ultrasound or some blood test of hormones can be advised and that can be easily corrected.
Treatment options to increase hair density - Dr. Rasya Dixit
Our hair is an indicator of health and vitality. It is also an indicator of youth. Nowadays because of the changing lifestyles and habits with increasing stress, increasing smoking in young people there is a lot of hair fall which causes the hair to lose its density. When we are talking about improving hair density things which we have to be immediately look at is the lifestyle. Make sure that you are eating enough quality of good quality proteins. Also include lot of fruits and vegetables in your diet to increase the vitamin content of your diet. If you have a strong family history of baldness in your parents, immediate relatives then you might be having a hormonal hair loss for which the treatment is a medicine called minoxidil. However minoxidil is a medicine and has to be prescribed by a dermatologist or a doctor who can examine you, make sure that you don’t have any concomitant medical conditions before they prescribe you these medicines. A lot of new peptide based medicines are now available to increase the density of the scalp. These are based on caffeine on capexil and these give you very good improvement without any side effects. These are applications on the scalp. Dermatologist is probably is the best person to guide you in these which molecule could help you the best. Taking a biotin supplement and taking food rich in iron become indispensable to quality of good health. If these treatments don’t work for you then you can always consider treatments such as platelet-rich plasma, dermaroller, low level laser therapy and mesotherapy to increase density of the scalp. Again please not try these at home. Your guide is better a professional dermatologist.
Is it true mint helps in hair reduction in women with PCOS? - Dr. Chetali Samant
It is true that spear mint helps in reducing facial hair growth or hirsutism. Spear mint helps in binding to the free testosterone and helps in prevention of conversion of normal hair follicles into coarse hair follicles. If you are regularly waxing or plucking coarse hair over chin including spear mint tea or fresh spearmint in your routine can help in reducing the growth of coarse hair. i.e. reduce the rate at which the coarse hair is growing. However if you have too many or the coarse hair growth is really large or in large amounts on your face spear mint alone may not help and you may have to look to other options like laser hair removal. It is not a bad thing at all. I completely recommend it. Do include spear mint fresh or spear mint tea in your routine. 3 to 4 cups is recommended. However there is a caution which goes along if you are sexually active because spear mint reduces testosterone. Sex drive may be reduced if you overdo spear mint. So that is the only contraindication that goes with spear mint. If you are fine with it do use spearmint in your routine and you will experience some change in the growth of coarse hair over a period of 3 to 4 months. https://curaayurveda.wordpress.com/ https://youtu.be/4C-WLWrr2aQ https://youtu.be/OwT0WCquJ7g https://youtu.be/tW4vEdmMKks https://youtu.be/TmOx_N1N-tY
What causes white spots on face? - Dr. Rasya Dixit
White spots on the face are something called as p alba or polymorphous light eruptions. When we say p alba, they are dry patches on the skin which are ill defined. They are usually dry and scaly, that means they seem as if some powder is coming off it. This is seen in people who do not use mild face wash or moisturizers on the skin and in some people who are prone to allergic tendency like dust allergy , they are prone to p alba. Usually they will say that they had these patches right from childhood. Another is the polymorphous light eruptions, where there is a mild sun allergy. There is a mild irritation and redness of the skin when they go out in the sun. Both these conditions use a gentle soap free face wash, use of face wash which is nice and water based called as hyaluronicacid an use a broad spectrum sunscreen, use it every 3 months, whether you are indoors or outdoors. This will help to bring the problem down. Misuse of over the counter creams or fairness creams could give you patchy whiteness of the skin. This will not get better with the treatment unless you stop the treatment. If with this your white patch does not get better, then it is better to consult your dermatologist because it could be a vitiligo or a leucoderma. Stop using any home care products. Use the gentle face wash, sunscreen and moisturizers. It will resolve in 2 – 3 weeks. If it does not get better, then consult your dermatologist.
Contact Lenses vs Glasses: Which one is best for you - Dr. Sirish Nelivigi
Between the two, the contact lenses and the glasses, they are like alternatives. People used to glasses will prefer glasses and people used to contact lenses would prefer contact lenses. Each of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. Glasses have the advantage that you can take it off and put it on any time you want. There is the advantage that you never end up with infections. The disadvantage of glasses is that they give a distortion of figure at the edge of the glasses and these glasses sit on your nose and they can be a source of discomfort and ofcourse cosmetically speaking glasses may not be a good option. Whereas contact lenses have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. The contact lenses have the advantage that when you put it on to your eye it gives you the most natural vision possible, much better than what the glasses will be giving. There is no problem of glare which can be seen with the glasses. On the other hand you need to take very good care of contact lenses which you don’t need to do with glasses. Here you can take it off in the evening and put it on in the morning and you need to keep the contact lens solution to keep cleaning the contact lenses meticulously. So each have their own advantages and disadvantages. The choice between contact lenses and glasses would purely depend upon each individual to choose which advantage or disadvantage they give more importance to.
Diet & exercise to conceive with PCOS & Metformin  - Dr. Teena S Thomas
Polycystic ovarian disease is a disease in women where there are changes in the hormonal levels leading to overweight and irregular cycles. And patient has hyperinsulinemia and the patient is on metformin. So we cannot put the patient on metformin lifelong. So the lifelong treatment for Polycystic ovarian disease is diet and exercise. BMI has to be maintained between 18 to 25. BMI is weight in kgs, to height in meter square. So it has to be maintained. So the girl has to be counseled with diet and exercise. So do one to one and a half hours exercise daily and like gymming, aerobics and swimming, walking, jumping, and climbing. So the mode of exercise the girl has to take high protein diet like egg white, milk products, all types of dals, sprouts, pulses, non-veg pieces. No gravies, almonds, acrot has high proteins. The fruit which has high protein is guava. So high protein diet and daily means of exercise depending upon the BMI is very necessary to bring down a proper BMI for girl with PCOS.
How to analyse your ovulation date? - Dr. Punitha Rangaraj
Normally a females in a reproductive age, the ovary will produce an egg every month, is called ovulation. It is important to know when you ovulate. In a 28 day cycle, can ovulate between 11th to the 21st day. It is a myth that the ovulation happens on the 14th day. If your periods are irregular m it is very difficult to predict the day of your ovulation, there are certain signs to know that these are the time of you r ovulation. Just before ovulation, the vaginal discharge becomes a little excessive. if the secretion becomes a little sticky during ovulation. Take the fluid and stretch it between your hands, t forma strand that is a sign of ovulation. Sometimes there could be mastalgia or pain in the breasts, or pain in the lower abdomen. Or few drops of blood can be seen at the time of ovulation. Not all the symptoms will be there for everybody. It will be just one or few symptoms. BBT is Basic Bid Temperature. This is made as a graph when you wake up every day, as soon as you wake up you check your temperature. Continue checking tis for 3-4 months. There is a little rise from temperature when you ovulate, but it is not reliable. Ovulation kits are available. There is increase in the Leutinising Hormone just before ovulation. The most reliable in the ultrasound scanning. Do a follicular monitoring from the 8th day of the periods on every alternate day. When the follicle reaches 18 -20 mm, that means your egg is ready to come out. Normally the egg is active only for 24 hours in the body. Fortunately the sperms are alive once it is introduced into the uterus. If you are planning for a pregnancy, if you have sex one or 2 days before ovulation, still you can get pregnant. If you are planning for pregnancy you can continue to have sex for that week.
Can losing weight cure Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome? - Dr. Chetali Samant
Curing poly cystic ovarian syndrome is not possible. But poly cystic ovarian disease can be successfully managed with weight loss alone. Losing weight itself indicates several things when you are trying to manage PCOD. The very fact that you are able to lose weight successfully with PCOS running in the background is an indicator of the fact that 1, that your insulin resistance is doing better now, that your insulin sensitivity has improved and so as your glucose and fat metabolism which is allowing your body to shed weight. 2, having hormonal balance i.e. balance of oestrogen, SHBG, progesterone, testosterone which are the hormones which are imbalanced in PCOS has been assured and that is allowing your body to shed weight successfully. Trying to lose weight is very hard in PCOS and nobody can tell this better than people who suffer from it. So losing weight makes sure that all these underlying mechanisms which are linked to PCOS are balanced and your body is coming to a metabolic balance which it had prior to the development of PCOS. That itself is assuring that you are managing PCOS successfully. Losing weight with the right kind of diet, not with crash diets, eating every 3 to 4 hours, having healthy food including lot of super foods in your diet and losing weight thus helps to ensure that your hormones are balanced, your metabolism is balanced and thus it helps you get regular periods, it helps to boost your fertility levels. It also helps the most nagging symptoms of PCOD go away like acne, hair loss. Thus weight loss is and thus the most successful way of managing PCOS. If you are not able to lose weight effectively despite of doing all things that means something is wrong. Do re-evaluate what are the measures that you have taken to manage the PCOD, whether the supplements or the medicines you are taking is right or not. I would like to mention that doing on oral contraceptive pills to regularise periods is one of the most common causes that clients come to me that leads to instant weight gain. So such quick fixes are the ones that makes your PCOS worse. Make sure you are doing all the right things. Eat your meals on time. Never skip your meals. Having your breakfast makes you more energetic, helps you work out better. Have healthy food, do not go for crash diets, exercise regularly. Focus on walking, jogging, running, core strengthening, yoga, whatever you can keep yourself physically active. Meditate regularly. Manage stress well because stress is emerging as one of the most prominent causes why women today are developing PCOS. Engage in activities which keep you happy and calm and thus all these will help you shed weight effectively and manage your PCOS better. https://curaayurveda.wordpress.com/ https://youtu.be/4C-WLWrr2aQ https://youtu.be/KyJqZo6o0iM https://youtu.be/tW4vEdmMKks https://youtu.be/TmOx_N1N-tY
Can I travel by flight during pregnancy?- Dr. Shefali Tyagi
Lifestyles have changed and women travel all over the world when they are pregnant. Flight travel is thought to be safe during pregnancy.. It also depends on the gestation of pregnancy. In the first three months, it is safe to travel, but we have to ensure that the pregnancy is in the uterus and not outside, i.e ectopic pregnancy. . It is also better to avoid flight travel during last 4 weeks of pregnancy, i.e after 36 weeks of pregnancy, it becomes slightly unsafe to travel by flight. From eight weeks to thirty six weeks, it is safe to travel by flight until and unless your doctor says No. The doctor can say No if you have a low lying placenta, any other complications that can land you in pre-term labor or if you have sickle cell anemia.. If its a short flight, get up after 30 or 45 minutes and talk a walk in the aircraft so that the blood does not clot into your legs. Keep yourselves well hydrated. avoid coffee and fizzy drinks during the flight. If its a long flight, please discuss with your doctor. she might put you on heparin which is an anti coagulant which will not allow the blood to clot into you legs. There are also stockings available these days which do not allow the blood to clot..
When is surgery required for Piles and Fissures? - Dr. Rajasekhar M R
Piles and fissures are not very dangerous diseases, though they cause of pain or bleeding. They are not life threatening or harmful diseases and there is a notion that only surgery is required for this. Very few cases require surgical interventions, most of them can be treated with medical line of management and some changes in our lifestyle. So, if the patients come out early stage most of them can be manage without surgery and surgery is also not that sought of very painful procedure which we are doing in the past. Now very high technology courses are available where in we can treat even the last stages of piles in a very simple way and without much of pain. They will be able to go back to work very next day and hardly about half a day admission may be required but most of them can be managed even without surgery. And patient should visit the doctor at the earliest so that we can avoid the surgery. Surgery is required only in 3rd and 4th Stage of chronic fissure which are not responding to medical management.
What causes radiating Chest Pain towards left side? - Dr. Sanjay Panicker
Whenever there is pain radiating from the left side of the chest, and extending over to the left arm, there is possibility of cardiac issue and the second ,most important problem is a cervical problem. Even a cervical problem can have pain radiating down to the chest ad down to the arm. Other issues are like hyperacidity like in Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gastritis, Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease, which is another reason why this symptoms can develop. When the pain radiates to the arm, rule out cardiac issues. If the pain is less than 5 minutes and it disappears after that, it could be angina pectora, which is relieved by sublingual tablets like sorbitrate. The other reason why you can have this kind of pain is the real heart attack. If you have severe pain with profuse sweating, vomiting and you have noticed that patients develop these symptoms after having food, heavy meal, then probably it is a heart attck.it does not come down after 15 minutes. It does not get relieved with any tablets.so then it requires medical intervention. Whereas pain related to the cervical, radiating down to the chest, or the arm, is a neurological pain, and it is usually caused by some bad posture like I had a patient who was regularly on the laptop, and a teacher who is looking up and developed this. So this way symptoms are there. There are also symptoms like Irritable Bowel Syndrome, then the gastritis can cause referred pain down to the arm.
How long to wait for natural contractions? - Dr. Shefali Tyagi
Labor can be divided into three stages when is the first stage of labor then the second and third. The first stage of Labor is from the time that you have started with your contractions still the full dilatation of cervix the second stage means it's the time when you push out the baby we have been fully diluted and push out the baby and third stage is the delivery. So when we are talking about contraction from your point of view it is the 1st stage and important to understand when to come to the hospital. So the first stage itself can be divided into two stages one is the early Labor and then is the active phase of Labor. So early labor is still the time when you are 3 centimeters dilated and active phase is from the time you are 3 centimeters to fully dilated. In early labor contractions can be there but they can be irregular, mild and of low intensity lasting for shorter time. So it is a very common that the early labor can extend for few days so it is important to know when to come to the hospital because people panic, what you can do is to start monitoring the contraction once they are becoming more and more frequent so early contractions can trouble you for 2 to 3 hours and then they will stop and disappear of a many hours. Once the contraction start becoming regular and start coming frequently they will approximately last for 15 to 30 seconds and they will start repeating maybe once in 10 minute twice in 10 minutes like that so once the start coming 3 to 5 minutes that is the time you can actually go to the hospital, till then you can wait and watch at home counting the frequency and judging the intensity but they are going higher or not and then you can safely go to the hospital because once you go to the hospital then it is like 6 to 8 hours of labor that will undergo before you deliver.
What is Ptosis of eye?  - Dr. Sirish Nelivigi
Ptosis is nothing but the dropping of the eyelid. When the 2 lids are not symmetrical and one of the eye is much lower than the other eye, we call it as ptosis. In colloquial terms it is called as drooping. It can be due to a mechanical cause. Be a swelling in the lid and there can be a drooping. It can be due to allergy, and we tend to keep rubbing the eyes and this causes a swelling and hence drooping. These are due to the mechanical causes. There are also conditions due to the nerve conditions which causes drooping. The nerve of the eye can get paralyzed and can cause drooping. This is called as neurogenic ptosis. In addition to this older people can develop a condition called as myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia gravis is a condition which affects the muscles of the body and cause weakness. It affects the eyes and causes drooping of the eyes. This needs to be evaluated. Diabetes can also cause drooping of the eyes. This comes under the category of neurogenic ptosis where the nerve controlling the eyelid become less perfused with blood and this can cause drooping of the eyes.
Are skin lightening glutathione injections safe and effective? - Dr. Rajdeep Mysore
Ask Doctors - Get Video Answers in HINDI Subscribe to - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCS1y5nTRddMYnozjN9iw0mA for HINDI videos Glutathione is an antioxidant which is produced in the body. It is a very small molecule called as tripeptide. It is made up of 3 amino acid. So it is a very small protein. Antioxidants are substances that take up free radicals in the body. Free radicals are produced during chemical reactions. These free radicals are extremely unstable molecules and they can damage anything that can come around them so they can damage the skin. It can damage internal organs. It can cause lot of problems in the body, lot of disease are caused by free radicals. Even a person growing old is caused by free radical damage. So ageing is also a part of free radicals. So what does glutathione do is it removes all the free radicals, so it improves many disease conditions. Infact glutathione is given as a free radical agent when people are getting chemotherapy for cancer. Accidentally it was discovered that these patients who are getting glutathione in cancer experience lightening of the skin. So this became very popular commercially and being used for skin lighting treatments. As a dermatologist I would to recommend anybody to get glutathione injections there have been concerns regarding its safety. There have been reported deaths with glutathione injection. But still the craze for fairness is so much that people inspite of knowing this they still want to get fair. So if we are administering glutathione, we admit the patient for the first injection and we monitor for any sort of allergic reactions. We keep the patient for 24 hours and if they are absolutely fine with the first injection then we can go ahead with the subsequent injection without admissions. But the glutathione injections should be given at a very slow rate and monitored for 4 hours.
Dental do's and don’ts during pregnancy - Dr. Reney Varghese
Oral health during pregnancy is very important because change in hormones leads to dental diseases. so regular visits are necessary during pregnancy.dental cleanings during pregnancy are also very safe.second trimester is the perfect time for dental treatments like crowns.root canal etc.
Steps to prevent sperm leakage after intercourse - Dr. Mamatha Reddy YV
This is one of the commonest question asked, after sexual activity there is increase in sperm leakage, could that be the reason why I am not able to conceive? The sperm leakage or a semen leakage occurs in all individuals whenever there is a sexual activity because the semen cannot enter into the cervical canal. The semen always leaks out but the sperms are actively motile, they move up through the uterus to reach the uterus and the fallopian tubes. Only precaution what the man has to do if she is planning a pregnancy is not to wash out the semen immediately after a sexual activity because water is toxic to the sperms and then lie down for sometime, say 10 – 15 minutes and then wipe out the secretions. So do not be bothered about sperm leakage, it can happen in all individuals.
Is it possible to reverse Pre Diabetes? - Dr. Sanjay Panicker
Pre diabetes is a condition where the patient is finding the blood sugar is somewhere in the borderline and he has the few symptoms of Diabetes, sugar is not high enough to call it is diabetic like for example many people do fake symptoms like they are either feeling too hungry, to thirsty or they have to go for urination very frequently but when check the blood sugar it is not that high also to call it diabetes. Normally fasting blood sugar of 100 to 125 is considered as the range for prediabetes and when the value is higher than that then only they categorised as diabetes, same way at the HbA1c test which gives an average of 3 months in that the value of 5.7 persons to 6.4 % is considered as pre diabetic, so whenever the values are like this and you find that the patient has symptoms we usually categorised as pre diabetes and prediabetes is just kind of a warning for the patient that you are heading towards diabetes. So you need to do something about this particular condition. This is the stage where the patient can definitely correct himself and thus prevent himself from developing into a full-fledged diabetic patient. So for this he has to take care of certain things and they surely reversible and surely curable, like for example the most common reason why people develop this kind of symptoms is because of the bad lifestyle either they are not exercising, they not eating the right kind of food which is rich in fibre or they don't have enough sleep, there too stressed out these are the most common reasons. So if you correct these three four things in your life style either eat well, exercise well, sleep well and cut down your stress with simple relaxation technique may be Yoga, Pranayama all this kind of techniques. Most of the patients do find that the blood sugar tips they don't need medicine sometimes but in certain patient this may be medical intervention is needed especially where this is strong family history, when there is strong family history your pre diabetes status is a little things which you should take care about because most of the Patience is a family history can head towards diabetes, so this extra care will diet, exercise and de-stressing all that is important, along with that certain homeopathic medicine also can be combined, so that they can be completely out of diabetes. So I don’t think that should be any problem that if you take care of your lifestyle and diet.
3rd Month - What are the symptoms during third month of pregnancy? - Dr. Shefali Tyagi
There will be an increase in nausea and vomiting during week eight, nine or ten. Increase in tiredness is also seen. You will also see increased back ache during this time. The pregnancy or uterine hormones are meant to relax the uterus and in doing that, the joints are also relaxed. Breast tenderness, frequent urination, loss of appetite will continue. You have to eat every two to three hours. You will also feel feverish and there will be some tummy cramps.
How soon after intercourse can you know if you are pregnant? - Dr. Teena S Thomas
Basic hormone which is required to say that a girl is pregnant is HCG human chorionic gonadotrophin so when HCG is positive and that is when we say pregnancy, basically HCG positive can be seen on in the blood and in the urine in the blood anything about 5 units is pregnancy, in the urine anything about 25 units can be seen. So a urine pregnancy test is expected to be positive when the cycles a regular to be 2 weeks after the intercourse. So if you had sex today 2 weeks from today during pregnancy test is supposed to be positive, but a negative urine test doesn't mean that it is always negative positive is positive but a negative doesn't mean because if after the egg is released it can stay for 24 hours to 48 hours and the sperm can stay to 72 hours rarely up to 7 days also. So a delayed pregnancy can still show positive during pregnancy test is usually positive 2 week from intercourse and a blood test can be positive a little earlier maybe 11, 12 or 13 day your blood test can be positive.
Tips to manage Back Pain in pregnancy - Dr. Shefali Tyagi
Back pain is very common in pregnancy. The reasons could be there is a little calcium deficiency in the body because the baby is actively taking the calcium from your bones. The center of gravity for the pregnant woman changes because of the extra weight she carries and because of the hormone relaxin which is secreted because of pregnancy. It relaxes all the joints resulting in an ache in the back or hips. So what to do if you have back pain? If you are a working woman, and you have a sitting posture, than change your position every 45 minutes to 1 hour. Take a round around the office, so that the muscles do not have to be in the same position. Secondly, don’t slouch on the chair or sit half way through the chair and bent forward. You have to sit right till the end of the chair, keep a pillow or a cushion towards the back so that the whole back is supported. Third thing is don’t bend. You have to squat down. You have to keep the back straight, but bend at the knees. Fourth is have a good diet rich in calcium and don’t miss out your calcium supplements. Have them daily. Don’t wear high heels. Have flats also so that your center of gravity is not affected. Inspite of this, when you come back home, if you have a back pain, it is safe to use a heating pad or a hot water bottle or a bag to give fermentation and then apply the local gels to give relief from the pain. If the pain is on the higher side, once in a while a paracetamol is a safe tablet to be used for pregnancy.
All about henna application on hair - Dr. Rasya Dixit
As we all have ageing, there is a greying of hair which becomes like a difficult thing to handle for most people and when we talk about hair colours, most people are scared to use the chemical hair colours because they feel that they its going to damage their hair. Especially when we see young people, they want to start off with an organic option and the most commonly used organic option is henna. Talk about henna, henna is a leaf and the leaf colours the hair shaft. The problem about henna and the reason why people talk a lot of negative things about henna is henna can dry out the hair shaft itself and cause a little bit of brittleness or dryness and hair breakage , post regular use. So what actually happens is , once you use henna, a chemical hair colour cannot latch on so easily to your hair shaft, which is why in the salons, they discourage you from using henna. Henna is a very safe treatment because people are usually not allergic to the organic henna which is usually being used. However in some places they might add a little bit of chemicals to the henna itself, to the henna itself to make it look darker. This is because, the henna gives only an orangish-red colour which might not be acceptable to the indian skin tones. So if you are going to get henna done, make sure first of all that you are using only the organic henna and you are not using any chemicals mixed with it. Second thing is remember that after the henna, your hair is going to become very dry. So make sure that you are conditioning your hair very well using a ph balance shampoo to use for a regular use. Third thing is maybe you can go for an oil massage for the hair, not for the scalp, but for the hair to keep it in good condition after using henna , but not before. Don’t oil the scalp or hair before using henna because that oil will prevent the henna from latching on very good and give you a better hair colour. So make sure you follow these tips and you can use henna for sometime till the greys increase. Then you might have to go for a chemical hair colour.
Precautions to take after a Total Knee Replacement Surgery - Dr. Hemant K. Kalyan
Avoid jumping and running.You can walk ,do cycling .Can also play golf.Avoid sports like badminton and basket ball.Avoid deep squatting.If you are undergoing a dental procedure you should inform your dentist about knee replacement,Bacteria involved in this procedure can reach knee through blood and grow around knee. Dentist will give antibiotics to prevent this.If you are having MRI scan you should also inform about knee replacement ."
5 Tips for preventing skin aging - Dr. Amee Daxini
For more, download the app - http://drcl.in/videoapp 5 Tips for preventing Skin aging are.. 1) Stop smoking because if the nicotine that present in the smoke is extremely harmful to your skin not only lungs. 2) Use a sun screen at least 30 minutes before you step out in the sun and repeat it every 2-3 hours if possible. Because it protects from toxic effects, UV damage, skin cancer. 3) Sleep well because sleep is an important factor to prevent aging. 4) Wash skin well, i.e., at least twice a day and use scrub at least once in a week. 5) Drink a lot of water which help to reduce dehydration of skin. For Appointments, https://doctorscircle.in/bangalore/doctor/dermatologist/dr-amee-daxini For more, download the app - http://drcl.in/videoapp
When Fibroadenoma grows the most & its complications? - Dr. Nanda Rajaneesh
Fibroadenoma in the breast arise from what are called as high risk cells in the breast lobules and ducts and these high risk cells arise because of multiple environmental factors and genetic factors, which is due to hormonal imbalance. Hormonal imbalance is more common when there is a nutritional deficiency or external ingestion of the hormones or any infections in the body itself. So these high risk cells when they are formed can lead to cyst formation, adenomas and fibroadenomas and many other fibrocystic disease components. So once they start growing in the breast, unless the hormonal imbalance is corrected, the fibroadenomas keep growing. The speed at which they grow does not depend on the external factors alone. It just depends on the type of cell that is formed in the breast. So some fibroadenomas grown very fast, some fibroadenomas do not. But once we correct the fibroadenoma, the influencing factor, by correcting the hormonal imbalance especially by giving Vitamin E, we notice the growth of the fibroadenoma is going to reduce. So once these fibroadenomas keep growing beyond 3 cms in size, we have to normally remove them. Otherwise they can keep increasing in size and large fibroadenomas they are called as giant fibroadenomas. But they actually do not get converted into malignancy at all.
How long does it take to get pregnant with metformin? - Dr. Teena S Thomas
Basically, Polycystic Ovary is an ovulation, and the hyperinsulinemia. So, basically, most of the cycles in a polycystic ovary, there is no formation of the egg, there is no ovulation happening. So, now here the patient has already taken 3 cycles of oral contraceptive pills, so hormones have already been taken. So, we hope that the patient is having a good cycle or hormonal levels, and post hormone she is on metformin. The germ of metformin is into increase the chances of ovulation, decrease hyperinsulinemia, decrease hyperandrogenism. Basically, it increases the level of ovulation for PCOD patients. So, now this patient who is on pills for 3 months have got a regular cycle, following which patient is on metformin, so the chances of pregnancy coming up quite early is definitely there, but, no fix dates can be told 1, 2, 3 months that metformin can cause. But, Metformin definitely increases chances of ovulation and pregnancy.
Recovery time of Ankle Fractures Vs Sprain - Dr. Hanume Gowda
Ankle fractures and sprain are two different entities. Ankle injuries are one of the common injuries in orthopaedics because as you walk you may just twist your ankle that can lead to injury it can be a sprain or a fracture. A sprain is an injury to the ligament which is a connective tissue connecting two bones which forms a join. When this gets injured we call it a sprain. Bone which is connecting breaks we call it a fracture. There are two different entities which can happen for a single type of injury example when you're walking ankle might just twist and have a fall, this might either lead to a ligament injury or a bone injury which is a sprain or a fracture. Depending on your injury accordingly will be the recovering time. A sprain generally takes 3-5 weeks to heal at the end of 6 weeks you will be able to walk properly. Total recovery period meaning internal healing may take another 6 weeks so total for about to 2-3 months it will heal completely. If there is a fracture it will take longer time to heal because a bone to bone healing or union will take a longer time to recover. So the healing period is minimum 6-8 weeks and further recovery will be one and half to two months to get complete movement to do all your activities. A fracture may take 4 months to heal while sprain takes 2-3 months for complete recovery.
What are the acupressure points for glowing & youthful skin?-Dr. Gurudatta H K
We all want a good healthy glowing skin. It is also important to understand that it is not very easy to get that skin. Most importantly our lifestyle, how we eat, how we sleep, how we manage our stress all these factors determine this. So first make sure that internal health of your body is optimum. Manage your stress well. Have healthy living habits in terms of sleep, food and exercise. Have sufficient intake of water on a day to day basis and avoid all kind of junk foods, excessive alcohol intake, smoking. The acupressure points for healthy and glowful skin are as follows. The first one is at the centre of your eyebrows above your nose and keep pressing it for about 30 seconds twice a day. The second one is just at the depression at the side of our eyebrows. It is called as the temples of our head. Just focus on that, medium pressure in the clockwise direction, you can just rotate it. These three points will help you to relax and reduce the stress. It is one of the important factor to maintain the healthy skin. The third point is basically when you close the index finger and the thumb and you get this prominence and the highest point in there. Fourth point is the end of the elbow crease. Just press it and rotate it in the clockwise direction for about 30 seconds. These two points come in the large intestine channel meant for detoxification. The fifth point is you measure four fingers from the inner bony prominence from the inner side of your legs and just locate this point behind your bone and press it for 30 seconds. The last point is between first and second toes measure about 2 and a half fingers from the web of the first couple of toes and then press it and rotate it in the clockwise direction. All these points will help us to detox, de-stress and lead to a healthy skin. At the same time we should understand that these points will help us to keep a balanced health within our systems.
What is Squint and what causes it? - Dr. Sirish Nelivigi
"Normally when we look through 2 eyes together should be perfectly aligned that means to say where ever the right eye is looking left eye also should look exactly at the same spot. There can be situations when the two eyes are not perfectly aligned with each other and in such a scenario one eye might be looking at a certain object and the other eye would be slightly deviated from its position. When this deviation happens because this deviation has squint in common terms. As far as what causes squint there are a long list of reasons what can cause squint and the squint can happen either in children or in adult. Especially in children squint can happen if they have refractive errors.Or in simple words glass power either they can have a - glass power or a + glass power myopia or hypermetropia. Each of these can be responsible for causing squint. Apart from this they can be some situations where is the media in the eye is not clear that means some of the structures in eye where the light goes through may not be clear. The conducting lens maybe Opaque the outer area maybe Opaque when any of these are opaque or the nerve conducting the impulse from the eye to the brain may not be conducting the impulses properly, when such situations happen then the vision in one of the eyes can be lesser than the other one this can cause squint. Any condition which causes one eye to have less vision than the other eye can cause squint. Any condition which causes an imbalance in the muscles between the two eyes also causes squint."
Causes of morning heel pain and its management - Dr. Hanume Gowda
Heel pain is a very common problem mostly in females compared to me. It will be early morning pain, like you sleep in the night and wake up in the morning , you have a pain and you walk for few steps, 8 – 10 steps, then it gets better. The Same thing may happen when you sit for half an hour and get up. You may get, you may get pain. Again you take few steps, 8 – 10 steps, then your pain will go off. This condition is grouped into a condition called plantar fasciitis, also called as heel pain. Most of the times, there are no causes for this, it just happens like that. Over time, there is a heel pad fat, between the bone and the skin, which will get flattened or worn off. When it gets worn off, the bone will start taking more load. This is the commonest cause. The other one is, there is a tissue called fascia, which connects the heel one to the toes. The plantar fascia from the heel to the toe, it can get tightened, also giving rise to this pain. It happens due to multiple reasons, like rheumatoid arthritis, uric acid problems leading to gout and gout related or gout type of arthritis. Here are more types of arthritis which can lead to pain, but most times the reason is unknown.it can be an old injury like a stone or a thorn which has pricked you. The stone would have come out, but the fat part is injured, leading to long term pain. Sometimes the infection can also lead to pain. How to manage this? An easier way is by exercises, stretching of the plantar fascia, that is stretching of the foot. Secondly wearing soft footwear. Microcellular rubber, microcellular polymer slippers are available. There is silicone heel pad. For​ people wearing shoes can use the silicon cup inside the shoes and that will also help. Sometimes with all this pain doesn’t come down, give pain killers and do physical therapies in the form of ultrasonic massages. If this doesn’t work, give local injections with steroids. With one injection, more than 70 – 80 % will get relief. If it doesn’t help, then we have to operate and clear the heel. So the pressure on the heel and then the pain also comes down.
Reasons of negative ovulation test from 10th to 16th day of periods - Dr. Punitha Rangaraj
Normally in a normal cycle, which is a very regular cycle, which happens between 28 days to 30 days, the ovulation occurs between 11th day tot eh 21st day. In this case if you have done to ovulation test only till the 16th day, when there are possibilities that you would have ovulated after the 16th day. So I would advise to continue to do the ovulation test upto the 20th day. Sometimes the ovulation would have occurred when you would have done the ovulation test, but still the test could be negative. Why it happens is because the ovulation depends on the hormone called as luteinizing hormone or LH. There is a slight increase in the hormone just before the ovulation, precisely maybe 10 hours before ovulation and that is what is detected in the ovulation kit. So the ideal would be to do the ovulation test twice a day in an interval of 10 hours from the 10th day to the 20th day. Sometimes it is not possible to do this ovulation test for twice a day for 10 days or when the periods are very irregular, then these dates do not coincide. So few tips we can give you is when you are ovulating, the vaginal discharge becomes a little more excessive. Sometimes you can see some spotting called as ovulation spotting or there may be lower abdominal cramps. That time you can do the ovulation testing. If after doping all these tests, if the test is negative, maybe you are not ovulating. That time you have to consult your doctor as to why you are not ovulating and get a proper line of treatment.
How to know if a 3 to 4 year old child needs a speech therapist? - Dr. Namrata Pai
A 3 -4 years old child should be using atleast 3 -4 word sentences and his sentences should be long and you should be able to have conversation of atleast 3 – 4 turns with your child. Now these sentences should not only have nouns, but also action words such as hug or jump. It should also have adjectives like slow, fast, near and a 3-4 year old child will also be using pronouns like I, my, she and if a child who I gone to the market, a 3 -4 year old child will say “I went to the market today” and not “I go market”, which is what maybe what a 2 to 2 and a half year old child would say. In terms of quality of speech, a 4 year old will be very clear. he would be able to say most of the sounds like ”pa”, “ma”, “ba”, “ka”, “ga”, “sa” and “sha”. If the child is 75% intelligible, then he doesn’t need any speech therapy, but at the same time, if the child is not very clear by 4 years of age, then you need to meet a speech language pathologist to deicide the next step which is to be taken.
How to plan pregnancy with Hypothyroidism? - Dr. Shashi Agrawal
In a woman with known hypothyroidism, and on medication for the same, pregnancy should be planned beforehand, abnormally high thyroid TSH levels can cause difficulty in conceiving, even if the conception occurs, it can lead to miscarriage and abnormalities in the fetus. So the pregnancy should be planned in advance. Before planning pregnancy, thyroid profile should be done, and TSH levels should be adjusted in such a way that it falls within the normal levels for pregnancy. Thyroid dose may usually be the same or even increased before planning a pregnancy. For example, if someone is on Thyronorm 50mg before pregnancy, during pregnancy it may be increased to about 62.5 or 75 according to the thyroid levels, and it usually continued throughout the pregnancy, it can be stopped depending on the TSH levels after the delivery. And should be thereafter checked from time to time.
How is low amniotic fluid treated? - Dr. Suhasini Inamdar
Low amniotic fluid is a condition in which the volume of amniotic fluid in the womb goes down. It is denoted by AFI (amniotic fluid index) which is below 8cms. It is seen in 2nd and 3rd trimester scan, and when it is diagnosed, we look into the reasons and try and treat those reasons so that it can remain whatever level it is or at least increase a bit. There is no sure method of increasing the amniotic fluid, but there are some time tested methods which are known to bring it to some considerably good levels. So that when it is lower than 8cms, we try and ask the mother to 1. Take proper rest, 2. Good nutrition which is rich in proteins, which are known to increase amniotic fluids. 3. Some amino acid preparations, which the lady can take by mouth or by IV infusions. 4. She can be prescribed some blood thinners also, which are again known to increase the amniotic fluids. 5. Drinking plenty of water and liquids which are permissible as suggested by the doctor Another reason which could cause low amniotic fluid levels, it can be of fetal origin. 1. It is seen in scan if the fetal kidneys are functioning properly, sometimes kidneys might be there, but they might not be functioning properly, sometimes fetus might have one missing kidney. 2. Lack of functioning of fetal urinary bladder, there may be some block, under these circumstances you're guided to go to a pediatric surgeon (who is a pediatric urologist), or go to an expert in fetal medicine, who can treat these conditions in utero. Another method to treat this is, putting saline in the amniotic sack through the IV line (like how we give for IV infusion). There might be chances of complications like infections, or precipitating the labour. We can deliver the baby when it is mature enough to survive outside the womb.
What is a Thyroid Nodule and how is it evaluated? - Dr. Lakshmi Ponnathpur
Whenever we notice is swelling in the midline of the next in the reason of the thyroid gland we have to suspect presence of thyroid nodule, thyroid nodules is nothing but is swelling in either one of the lobes or in the Isthmus of the thyroid gland. When a patient swallows the thyroid gland located in front of the wind pipe or the trachea moves with deglutition. So whenever the gland moves thyroid nodule also moves. On examination you can find either a single nodule which is called a solitary nodule, all that can be multiple nodules called multinodular goitre. Sometimes the entire thyroid gland can be hugely enlarged called collide goitre. Coming to evaluation whenever your thyroid gland is enlarged you have to do certain tests. One of the important test being thyroid function test T3, T4 and TSH estimation has to be done to detect the presence of either Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The next test would be an ultrasound scan of the thyroid gland, the ultrasound scan detect whether it is a cold nodule, whether it is a hot hot nodule or whether it is a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland. The next test would be FNAC test fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule is very important that helps in determining the psychological status of the nodule. It can be a benign nodule or repair it can be a malignant nodule. Especially ultrasound guided FNAC helps in arriving at fairly precise diagnosis, therefore any patient coming with thyroid swelling should undergo these tests.
Amniotic fluid index measurements during pregnancy - Dr. Suhasini Inamdar
"Amniotic fluid index or AFI is measurement of Amniotic fluid during pregnancy in the womb. It is a measurement which is taken by sinologist and it is given usually in millimetres or Centimetres. The normal range of amniotic fluid index or AFI is 8 to 18 centimetre . It is measure by sinologist when you go for your check-ups and it is very good Indicator of fatal indicates wellbeing and healthy pregnancy. The AFI is measured by dividing the uterus into 4 quadrants, in each quadrant a clear pocket of amniotic fluid is seen and measured vertically. Clear amniotic fluid pocket means there should not be any fatal parts or umbilical card in that area so we get whatever is the fluid as a correct measurement. Then all the four major means are added on and the sum is given to you as amniotic fluid index. There are two ways of denoting these index, one is we can just tell the measurement in centimetres saying that it is 5, 6, 10 or 12 or we give some charts In which the percentile is mentioned. In between the percentile of amniotic fluid and index fall below 5 percentile or 5 centimetre is not good, between 8 and 18 is good which is called as normal AFI. Below 8 centimetres we call it as oligoamnios and above 18 Centimetres. When the fluid index is at around about 22 to 21 we call it has polyhydramnios. Reasons for hydro, polyhydromnios and oligoamnios are very different. In oligoamnios there are some factors which are related to mother as improper nutrition, Lifestyle, hypertension during pregnancy, some are placenta indication which are responsible for oligoamnios like poor functioning of placenta and some of it indicates which can be a improper formation of urine in fatal body because of lack of one kidney or poor function of one kidney or some block in the urinary bladder of the fittest so these are the reasons what we normally get when we see oligoamnios. Another biggest reason is PROM premature rupture of membranes, normally gestational diabetes in mother is one of the major reasons for polyamines . So when you go for your routine check up with glaciologist they seen] to AFI and feel very comfortable when it fall in the normal range otherwise and advise you what is to be done to keep it under normal range and keep it in safe limit. "
Management of Rh incompatibility between Mother & child  - Dr. Rashmi Chaudhary
Rh incompatability is a state which arises when a pregnant woman is Rh negative and her unborn child is Rh positive. What problem arises in this we can understand in this way. In some cases there can be some feto-maternal haemorrhage or there can be mixing of maternal and foetal blood. Then some of the fetal RBC which is Rh positive will enter into the maternal circulation. Since the mother is Rh negative she doesn’t have that antigen and hence our immune system will trace that antigen which is a foreign body for her and will start producing antibodies for her. If the foeto-matrernal bleeding is small then there will be reaction of antigen-antibody and it will destroy then and there. But if feto-maternal haemorrhage is more than some of these antibodies will be entering into the fetal circulation and these antibodies can cause destruction of the fetal RBCs which can cause fetal anaemia, jaundice of varying severity, hepatospleenomegaly or the kernicterus which is a brain damage. In severe cases of RH immunisation in consecutive pregnancies we can see the disease status like erythroblastosis foetalis. Normally there are three stages in pregnancy where there can be some mixing of blood, like one at 12 weeks, 28 weeks, and maximum it happens around or at the time of delivery. So first born child is normally not affected because duration of exposure is very minimal. But if in consecutive pregnancy if the foetus is Rh positive then the chances of extent of damage is more. So to avoid this situation we have to immunise the woman with a passive immunity. There acn be other conditions also where there can be mixing of blood like in cases of spontaneous or induced abortion, if a woman gets bleeding in pregnancy or if theer is invasive procedures like chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. So prevention is the main stay of management of the Rh incompatability. So once the woman is Rh negative, husband is Rh positive we just test them with indirect Coombs test which can assess the feto-maternal bleed and if it is found to be negative which we do at 12 weeks, 28 weeks, then we immunise the woman after 28 weeks with injection anti D or immunoglobulin 300 microgram. If there is a history of abortion or anything we can immunise them earlier also. If it is below 12n weeks we can immunise them with 150 micrograms. If it is after 12 weeks we can immunise them with 300 micrograms. Once again the baby is delivered we check for the baby’s blood group and we do. If the baby is fine Rh positive once again immunisation is given with anti D immunoglobulins. These are actually fighters. If further feto maternal haemorrhage happens it will fight against that. In severe cases when the Rh iso-immunisation has already happened we can assess the pregnancy with estimation of Rh antibody titre and these babies are at a risk so very careful monitoring is required for these babies and they are given intrauterine transfusion with blood or exchange transfusion is done and early delivery is indicated.
Is it safe to have Dydrogesterone during the 5th week of pregnancy? - Dr. Shefali Tyagi
Basically duphaston is a safe tablet to take in pregnancy. early pregnancy is the most common time it is prescribed. It is given to support the pregnancy, like if it is the first pregnancy, or IVF pregnancy or IUI pregnancy, if you had bleeding in pregnancy or fibroids prior to pregnancy. In all these cases, or if you want to support the pregnancy, duphaston is one of the commonly used medicines, so that the baby gets a good support of hormone if it requires, hence reduce miscarriages. Studies have shown that duphaston, given at the right time leads to less miscarriages. So don’t get worried, trust your doctor, it is a safe tablet to take in pregnancy.